Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : PEGACPSA88V1
Exam Name : Certified Pega System Architect 8.8 Certification
Vendor Name : Pegasystems
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Pegasystems Certified teaching

 

Certification Requirements

/ Education Department TO QUALIFY FOR AN ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY TEACHING CERTIFICATE*, YOU MUST:
  • Complete all general education requirements for the B.S., B.A. or B.M. degree at Hope College.
  • Complete the Teacher Education Program coursework and field/clinical experiences, including student teaching.
  • Complete the requirements for a major and minor for Secondary Teaching Certificate and Elementary Teaching Certificate before admittance in Fall of 2021 approved by the Education Department and affirmed by the Michigan Department of Education.
  • Complete the requirements for primary and secondary grade bands for Elementary Certificates for Fall 2021 and after.
  • Maintain a minimum GPA of 2.75 on a 4.0 scale in:
  • Overall coursework at Hope College
  • Coursework in major area of study
  • Coursework in minor area of study
  • Coursework in the Teacher Education Program
  • Pass the required Michigan Tests for Teacher Certification (MTTC) in appropriate areas.
  • *State of Michigan requirements for teacher certification are subject to periodic change. Students must meet all requirements in effect at the time of application.

    MICHIGAN TESTS FOR TEACHER CERTIFICATION (MTTC)

    In order to meet Michigan Test for Teacher Certification (MTTC) requirements mandated by the State of Michigan for teacher education candidates,

    all elementary track students:
  • Must pass the Elementary Education exam (Test #103).
  • Are encouraged to take relevant major and minor subject area exams. These are optional but are strongly recommended for marketability purposes and in order to earn certification to teach at the middle school level (grades 6–8).
  • all secondary track students:
  • Must pass exams in both major and minor (or double major) areas of study, with the exception of music education, visual arts education and integrated science majors at the secondary level that do not require a minor. View the MTTC list of subject test selections.
  • Don’t attempt these exams until you’ve completed 90% of coursework in each subject area. Most students take the test immediately preceding or during student teaching. Registration, test objectives and study guides are available on the MTTC website.  Additional study resources can be found on this list of  MTTC Study Guides.

    For information on MTTC Waivers, including the department policy on granting waivers, view the Hope College Education Department MTTC Voucher Application .

    For information on reciprocity and out-of-state licensure, postgraduate teaching certification, additional endorsements or state testing requirements, please contact: 

    Dr. Sara Hoevehoeve@hope.edu616.395.7740

    The Hope College certification officer will offer licensure advice based on their knowledge and prior experiences. However, it is the responsibility of the Hope College teacher candidate to double check specific state websites for current testing information and certification requirements given ongoing changes in individual state policies.


    Michigan Test for Teacher Certification

    MTTC tests are meant to ensure that each certified teacher has the necessary skills and subject area knowledge to serve in Michigan's schools. These tests are designed and implemented by the Michigan Department of Education.

    Save all official MTTC score reports in a safe place because you may need them for employment or teacher certification in other states. If you need new score reports, additional copies may be ordered using these instructions.

    In order to be certified, students must pass the MTTC subject area tests that correspond to the major and minor field(s) of study. These tests should not be taken until the final year of the program, but it is highly recommended that students pass their MTTC subject area test(s) before student teaching.

  • Find out which subject tests you need to take.
  • Subject area test scores are valid for five years from the date of testing (students need to be recommended for certification within those five years).
  • Register at the Michigan Test for Teacher Certification website. 
  • The fee for each subject test is $129.
  • During the registration process, be sure to identify yourself as a Calvin student and also request that your scores be sent to Calvin.
  • Be careful to enter an accurate social security number. It is a huge inconvenience if you enter an incorrect number. Canadians, please register using your U.S. social security number, not your Canadian social insurance number.
  • When asked if you are completing an “alternative route” to teacher certification, answer “No” (Calvin’s program is a traditional route).
  • Candidates with diagnosed disabilities may register for alternative testing arrangements.
  • Candidates who do not speak English as a primary language may request additional time for any MTTC test except world language subject tests.
  • Be sure to review the appropriate study guides. Depending on your subject area, you may find helpful practice problems at education.com or 240Tutoring. Curriculum Collection middle or high school textbooks may be used to review content.
  • Tests are no longer offered on campus. All MTTC tests are now computer-based only. Exam Center locations are available in cities worldwide. 
  • Elementary Education Students

    Students seeking elementary certification must also take the Elementary Education MTTC test #103. Do not take the new Lower or Upper Elementary tests 117-124. When registering for the Elementary Education test, report elementary education as a "major." Take the time to review the online study guide and test objectives. Spend extra time studying for these subareas, which have lower pass rates:

  • Social Studies
  • Visual and Performing Arts
  • Health and Physical Education
  • Special Education Program Students

    Candidates interested in teaching grades 9–12 special education in a Michigan public school may need to take additional MTTC tests later in consultation with the hiring school (mathematics, integrated science, and/or language arts).

    If you have questions, contact Calvin's certification and exam coordinator at (616) 526-6208 or certification@calvin.edu.


    Teacher Certification

    Certification Skip to Main Content Skip to Main Navigation Skip to Footer

    Have you:

  • Met all of the University of North Georgia's institutional requirements?
  • Met all of the graduation requirements for your teacher certification program?
  • Completed their teacher preparation program, in a specific teaching field?
  • If so, then you are eligible to apply for a Georgia teaching certificate!

  • Complete the entire Georgia Professional Standards Commission Certification Update Application, available on the GaPSC website under popular links – get forms. This form is also available in your MyPSC account to be completed electronically.
  • Attach your final Professional Learning Unit (PLU) transcript which you will receive from the University of North Georgia to the application.
  • If you have not already done so, complete the Verification of Lawful Presence forms. These forms are on the GaPSC website along with the Certification Application. Attach the forms to your application packet. Note: this form must be notarized. Be sure to attach a copy of the secure and verifiable document mentioned in the instructions for the VLP form.
  • Submit the packet to your district office or directly to the GaPSC at the address at the top of the first page of the application. Applicants submitting documents directly to the GaPSC may do so through their MyPSC account. You must also submit a copy of the PLU transcript to the GaPSC from your MyPSC account.
  • If employed, you should contact your district office while completing this process. The district office will also be able to submit a form to waive the $20.00 fee the GaPSC charges.
  •  With courses taken for college credits:

  • Complete the entire Georgia Professional Standards Commission Certification Update Application, available on the GaPSC website under popular links – get forms. This form is also available in your MyPSC account to be completed electronically.
  • Complete the online request form on the UNG website to have an official transcript sent to you (for attaching with your application) or directly to the GaPSC.
  • If you have not already done so, complete the Verification of Lawful Presence forms. These forms are on the GaPSC website along with the Certification Application. These forms may be attached to your application packet or sent directly to the GaPSC. Note: this form must be notarized.
  • Submit the packet to your district office or directly to the GaPSC at the address at the top of the first page of the application. Applicants submitting documents directly to the GaPSC may do so online at MyPSC (mypsc.gapsc.org). Note: you may not submit an official college transcript from your MyPSC account.
  • If employed, you should contact your district office while completing this process. The district office will also be able to submit a form to waive the $20.00 fee the GaPSC charges.
  • Q: I have completed a teacher preparation program and did not apply for teacher certification before July 1, 2014. How do I apply for teacher certification in Georgia?

    Please contact Ms. Chris Parker, Certification Official for teacher certification programs. She can be reached at 706-864-1852. Office visits by appointment only.

    Establishing Connection...


     


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug