Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Vendor Name : HR
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PET exam Format | PET Course Contents | PET Course Outline | PET exam Syllabus | PET exam Objectives

Test Detail:
The HR PET (Professional Employment Test) is an exam designed to evaluate the knowledge, skills, and abilities of candidates in various areas of human resources. This test is typically used for employment screening and selection purposes. Here is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, exam objectives, and exam syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The number of questions and time allocation for the HR PET may vary depending on the specific version or administration of the test. However, on average, the exam consists of approximately 100-150 multiple-choice questions. Candidates are typically given a specific time limit, usually ranging from 2 to 3 hours, to complete the test.

Course Outline:
The course outline for the HR PET covers a wide range of subjects relevant to the field of human resources. The outline may include the following key areas:

1. HR Fundamentals
2. Recruitment and Selection
3. Employee Relations
4. Training and Development
5. Compensation and Benefits
6. Performance Management
7. Employment Law and Regulations
8. HR Strategy and Planning
9. HR Metrics and Analytics
10. Ethical and Professional Practices in HR

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the HR PET are to assess candidates' knowledge and understanding of various HR concepts, principles, and practices. The exam aims to evaluate the following key areas:

1. Knowledge of HR fundamentals, including HR roles and responsibilities, HR policies and procedures, and HR best practices.
2. Understanding of recruitment and selection processes, such as job analysis, job description, job posting, candidate screening, and interviewing techniques.
3. Knowledge of employee relations, including employee engagement, conflict resolution, disciplinary procedures, and employee communication.
4. Understanding of training and development methods, including needs exam, training design and delivery, performance evaluation, and employee development plans.
5. Familiarity with compensation and benefits practices, including salary structures, employee benefits administration, and performance-based compensation.
6. Understanding of performance management processes, including goal setting, performance appraisal, feedback and coaching, and performance improvement plans.
7. Knowledge of employment laws and regulations, such as equal employment opportunity, labor laws, wage and hour regulations, and workplace safety.
8. Understanding of HR strategy and planning, including workforce planning, talent management, succession planning, and HR technology.
9. Familiarity with HR metrics and analytics, including data analysis, HR reporting, HR dashboard creation, and workforce analytics.
10. Awareness of ethical and professional practices in HR, including confidentiality, integrity, diversity and inclusion, and ethical decision-making.

Exam Syllabus:
The exam syllabus for the HR PET typically covers the following topics:

1. HR Fundamentals and Concepts
2. Recruitment and Selection
3. Employee Relations and Communication
4. Training and Development
5. Compensation and Benefits
6. Performance Management
7. Employment Laws and Regulations
8. HR Strategy and Planning
9. HR Metrics and Analytics
10. Ethical and Professional Practices in HR

Candidates should refer to the official HR PET study materials and resources provided by the test administrator to ensure they are adequately prepared for the exam. It is recommended to allocate sufficient time for exam preparation, including studying relevant HR concepts, familiarizing oneself with HR practices and regulations, and practicing with sample exam questions.

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HR Employment course outline


How To Become An HR Consultant: Salary, Education Requirements And Job Growth

Editorial Note: They earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect their editors' opinions or evaluations.

When a company or organization seeks to Improve its human resources (HR) operations and grow its business, management can seek an HR consultant for support. Human resources consulting refers to advising organizations about their HR operations. HR consultants can provide valuable support and guidance for organizations looking to optimize their HR functions and Improve business outcomes.

This article explores what HR consulting entails, including primary job responsibilities for these professionals, average salary data, job growth estimates and steps you can take to pursue a career as an HR consultant.

What is HR Consulting?

HR consulting refers to the advice, recommendations and services that external contract workers or HR consulting firms provide. These insights guide businesses in optimizing their HR operations, addressing problems through new policies and procedures that align with organizations’ goals and objectives.

Across industries, companies of all sizes seek HR consulting to Improve their HR policies and ensure their programs stay up to date with new labor regulations. Areas where HR consultants provide strategic guidance include talent acquisition and retention, training and development, compensation, benefits, regulatory compliance and performance management.

HR consultants can tailor their services to meet organizations’ needs on a project-by-project basis or as ongoing support.

What Does an HR Consultant Do?

An HR consultant offers support to organizations that want to Improve their HR operations.

These professionals have specialized expertise in various HR domains and provide advice based on industry standards and best practices. Their services can benefit small businesses with no dedicated HR department as well as large organizations that need additional support to address complex HR challenges.

HR consultants have a comprehensive understanding of sales, accounting, marketing, finance, information technology and management. They draw on this knowledge to recommend solutions to various HR challenges.

The responsibilities of an HR consultant vary by company, sector and industry. Their duties can include:

  • Creating and conducting research, interviews and surveys to identify underlying organizational issues
  • Developing and implementing HR policies and procedures in areas such as recruitment, performance management, employee relations and total rewards
  • Planning training and development programs that strengthen employee knowledge and skills
  • Analyzing data to extract actionable insights and write reports about their findings for management
  • Ensuring compliance with local, state and federal employment regulations and laws
  • Human Resources Consultant Salary and Career Growth

    According to Payscale, the average salary for human resources consultants was approximately $78,200 as of June 2023. Several factors can influence earning potential, including location, industry, educational background and professional experience. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) projects human resource specialist jobs will grow by 8% between 2021 and 2031—faster than the projected growth rate for all occupations.

    Steps to Become an HR Consultant

    Though aspiring HR consultants can take several pathways to their careers, many of these workers follow a similar professional journey. Below, their step-by-step guide outlines the typical process to become an HR consultant.

    Earn a Bachelor’s Degree

    Earning a bachelor’s degree in human resources, business administration or a closely related discipline can equip you with the foundational knowledge and skills needed to pursue a career as an HR consultant. While it is possible to become an HR consultant with a degree in a field outside HR or business administration, the curriculum in these disciplines equips graduates with the core competencies and knowledge of HR best practices and procedures.

    A bachelor’s in human resources usually requires 120 credits, which comprises general education and major-specific coursework. Though the curriculum for HR bachelor’s degrees differs by school, common courses in these programs include:

  • Introduction to HR
  • Employment law
  • Staffing organizations
  • Training and development
  • Compensation and benefits
  • Each institution maintains its own admission criteria for HR bachelor’s degrees. Generally, applicants need a high school diploma or GED. Some colleges and universities maintain minimum GPA requirements. In addition to official transcripts of high school and postsecondary coursework, standard admissions materials include:

  • Standardized test scores from exams such as the ACT or SAT
  • Admissions essay
  • Letters of recommendation from professional and academic references
  • Admissions interview
  • Look Into a Master’s or MBA Degree

    Employers may prefer HR consultants with a master’s in human resources or a human resources MBA. These graduate degrees develop students’ advanced HR knowledge and skills. Many programs at this level offer concentration options, allowing students to focus on specific subfields like organizational development, HR management or labor relations.

    Both master’s in human resources (MHR) and MBA in human resources graduate degrees focus on human resources management. Although these programs share similarities, key differences separate them, including scope and curriculum.

    MHR programs specifically focus on HR functions, such as talent acquisition, employee relations, training and development, employment law, compensation and benefits. In comparison, the breadth of HR MBA programs is often much broader, offering classes in human resources management alongside business administration courses such as marketing, accounting, finance and economics.

    Generally, MHR graduates find employment opportunities in HR departments, whereas graduates with an MBA in HR qualify for a wider array of job opportunities, including management positions. Choosing between an MHR and an MBA in human resources depends on your educational and professional background and career goals.

    Develop HR Skills and Gain Work Experience

    Many HR consultants have at least three years of professional experience. Gaining work experience through entry-level positions and internships before moving to more advanced roles provides practical insight into HR. Working these jobs also helps build a solid foundation of the practical knowledge and skills you need to consult organizations effectively on HR-related matters.

    Earn Additional Certification

    Earning professional certification—like credentials from the Society for Human Resource Management—demonstrates your commitment to career development, ongoing learning and the HR field. HR certifications validate your knowledge, skills and expertise in various HR functions, signaling to employers and clients that you stay abreast of industry trends, regulatory requirements and best practices.

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Becoming an HR Consultant Do HR consultants make good money?

    The average salary for HR consultants was around $78,200 as of June 2023. Multiple factors can impact earning potential, including employing industry, organization and whether you work in-house as a full-time employee or on a contractual basis for multiple clients.

    What skills do you need to be a human resource consultant?

    HR consultants need strong written and verbal communication, interpersonal, problem-solving and analytical skills. These professionals must be able to analyze complex data to extract data-driven recommendations and solutions.

    Are HR consultants in high demand?

    The BLS projects demand for HR specialists, including HR consultants, to grow by 8% between 2021 and 2031.

    How to Build the Best Upskilling Program for Your Employees

    No result found, try new keyword!Skilled workers will only become more essential as new technologies develop: On a global scale, approximately 6 in 10 workers will need training before 2027 ... At Veracode, it took a team of three on ...

    Colorado Enacts New Protections for Employees

    In June 2023, Colorado Gov. Jared Polis signed into law the Protecting Opportunities and Workers’ Rights (POWR) Act, which, among other things, substantially limits the use of nondisclosure agreements, lowers the burden of proof for workplace harassment claims and imposes new record-keeping requirements on employers with employees working in Colorado. They outline the key provisions of the act – which took effect on August 7, 2023 – below.

    Limitations on nondisclosure agreements

    The POWR Act declares that it is the state’s public policy to encourage “free reporting, discussion, and exposure of discriminatory or unfair employment practices” to better protect employees. Therefore, the POWR Act makes clear that “attempts to interfere with employees’ ability to communicate about and report alleged discriminatory or unfair employment practices are contrary to the public policy of the state.”

    In alignment with these objectives, the POWR Act substantially limits an employer’s ability to use nondisclosure agreements entered into or renewed on or after August 7, 2023. Under the act, such provisions that limit an employee’s or prospective employee’s ability to “disclose or discuss” any alleged discriminatory or unfair employment practices are now void, unless the agreement satisfies all of the following requirements:

  • The provision applies equally to the employer and employee.
  • The provision expressly states that it does not restrain the employee or prospective employee from disclosing the underlying facts of any alleged discriminatory or unfair practices to certain individuals – including immediate family members, local, state, or federal government agencies, or in response to a legal process (e.g., a subpoena).
  • The provision expressly states that disclosure of the underlying facts of any allegation does not constitute disparagement.
  • The agreement includes a condition that if a nondisparagement provision is included and the employer disparages the employee or prospective employee, the employer cannot seek to enforce the provision or seek damages against the employee.
  • Any liquidated damages provision in the agreement does not constitute a penalty or punishment – and to be enforceable, it must include an amount that is reasonable and proportionate and not punitive.
  • The agreement must attach an addendum signed by all parties to the agreement, attesting to compliance with the above requirements.
  • Notably, any violation of the above requirements carries significant costs and penalties, including liability for genuine damages and a penalty of $5,000 per violation. Further, any employee or prospective employee who is presented with an agreement that fails to comply with the new requirements may immediately bring an action and may recover penalties, genuine damages, reasonable costs, attorneys’ fees and punitive damages.

    Lowered standard for workplace harassment

    Like some other states, such as New York, the POWR Act also rejects the “severe or pervasive” standard for proof of workplace harassment claims in favor of a lower standard that makes harassment claims easier to prove. Under this standard, unwelcome conduct that is “subjectively offensive to the individual alleging harassment and is objectively offensive to a reasonable individual who is a member of the same protected class” is harassment under Colorado law.

    While the conduct or communication need not be severe or pervasive to be unlawful, it must still meet one of the following additional requirements to constitute illegal harassment:

  • Submission to the conduct or communication is explicitly or implicitly made a term or condition of the individual’s employment.
  • Subjection to or objection to the conduct or communication is used as a basis for the employment decision affecting the employee.
  • The conduct or communication has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with the individual’s work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive working environment.
  • Notably, however, even a single incident may rise to the level of harassment, and the act points out that conduct that was previously welcome may become unwelcome between two individuals.

    Limitations on affirmative defenses to harassment claims

    The POWR Act also limits an employer’s ability to assert affirmative defenses to claims of harassment by supervisors. To assert such a defense, employers must now establish that they had a program in place designed to prevent harassment and deter future harassers that was communicated to employees, and that the employee bringing such a claim unreasonably failed to take advantage of the program. As part of this program, employers must take prompt and reasonable action to investigate or address the alleged harassment or unfair employment practice and take remedial actions when warranted.

    New record-keeping requirements

    The POWR Act also requires employers to preserve personnel or employment records for at least five years. Personnel or employment records broadly include:

  • Requests for accommodation.
  • Employee complaints.
  • Application forms submitted by applicants for employment.
  • “Other records related to hiring, promotion, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, rates of pay or other terms of compensation, selection for training or apprenticeship, and records of training.”
  • In addition, employers also must keep a “designated repository” of all written and oral complaints of discrimination or unfair employment practices, which must include the date of the complaint, identity of the parties and substance of the complaint.

    Marital status as a protected class and modified disability discrimination framework

    Finally, the POWR Act also adds marital status as a protected category under the state’s anti-discrimination law and modifies the framework for disability discrimination. With respect to disability claims, Colorado law now provides that it is not a discriminatory or unfair employment practice to take adverse action against an individual with a disability if there is “no reasonable accommodation that the employer can make with regard to the disability that would allow the individual to satisfy the essential functions of the job.” Previously, the law also required that the disability has a “significant impact on the job.” By removing this requirement, the state’s standard now mirrors the federal Americans with Disabilities Act standard.

    Next steps

    Colorado employers should take the following steps in light of the POWR Act’s significant new obligations:

  • Review and revise any nondisclosure agreements, including any separation or settlement agreements with such provisions, for compliance with the law.
  • Review and revise applicable policies to comply with the new standards outlined in the act.
  • Train relevant human resources (HR) staff and management on any updated policies and standards established by the act.
  • Review and revise applicable document retention policies with respect to personnel files and other employment records and work with HR to ensure compliance with the new record-keeping requirements.
  • Reevaluate reasonable accommodation processes in light of the new disability discrimination framework, if applicable.
  • [View source.]


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug