Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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PMI PMI-200 : PMI-Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP) ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : PMI-200
Exam Name : PMI-Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP)
Vendor Name : PMI
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PMI-200 test Format | PMI-200 Course Contents | PMI-200 Course Outline | PMI-200 test Syllabus | PMI-200 test Objectives


There are 120 questions for the PMI-ACP® test (20 random questions (called as pre-test) from the 120 questions are not to be counted towards the final score)

All questions are multiple-choice questions with 1 correct answer from 4 choices

The PMI-ACP® test lasts for 3 hours

The PMI-ACP® test is computer-based in most cases (i.e. to be answered on a computer in a selected test centre)



Domain I. Agile Principles and Mindset 16%

Domain II. Value-driven Delivery 20%

Domain III. Stakeholder Engagement 17%

Domain IV. Team Performance 16%

Domain V. Adaptive Planning 12%

Domain VI. Problem Detection and Resolution 10%

Domain VII. Continuous Improvement (Product, Process, People) 9%



DOMAINS AND TASKS


Domain I. Agile Principles and Mindset (9 tasks)

Explore, embrace, and apply agile principles and mindset within the context of the project
team and organization.


Domain II. Value-Driven Delivery (4 sub-domains, 14 tasks)

Deliver valuable results by producing high-value increments for review, early and often, based on stakeholder priorities. Have the stakeholders provide feedback on these increments,and use this feedback to prioritize and Boost future increments.


Domain III. Stakeholder Engagement (3 sub-domains, 9 tasks)

Engage current and future interested parties by building a trusting environment that aligns their needs and expectations and balances their requests with an understanding of the cost/effort involved. Promote participation and collaboration throughout the project life cycle and provide the tools for effective and informed decision making.


Domain IV. Team Performance (3 sub-domains, 9 tasks)

Create an environment of trust, learning, collaboration, and conflict resolution that promotes team self-organization, enhances relationships among team members, and cultivates a culture of high performance.


Domain V. Adaptive Planning (3 sub-domains, 10 tasks)

Produce and maintain an evolving plan, from initiation to closure, based on goals, values, risks, constraints, stakeholder feedback, and review findings.


Domain VI. Problem Detection and Resolution (5 tasks)

Continuously identify problems, impediments, and risks; prioritize and resolve in a timely manner; monitor and communicate the problem resolution status; and implement process improvements to prevent them from occurring again.


Domain VII. Continuous Improvement (Product, Process, People) (6 tasks)

Continuously Boost the quality, effectiveness, and value of the product, the process, and the team.



Agile values and principles

 Agile frameworks and terminology

 Agile methods and approaches

 Assessing and incorporating community and stakeholder values

 Stakeholder management

 Communication management

 Facilitation methods

 Knowledge sharing/written communication

 Leadership

 Building agile teams

 Team motivation

 Physical and virtual co-location

 Global, cultural, and team diversity

 Training, coaching, and mentoring

 Developmental mastery models (for example, Tuckman, Dreyfus, Shu Ha Ri)

 Self-assessment tools and techniques

 Participatory decision models (for example, convergent, shared collaboration)

 Principles of systems thinking (for example, complex adaptive, chaos)

 Problem solving

 Prioritization

 Incremental delivery

 Agile discovery

 Agile sizing and estimation

 Value based analysis and decomposition

 Process analysis

 Continuous improvement

 Agile hybrid models

 Managing with agile KPIs

 Agile project chartering

 Agile contracting

 Agile project accounting principles

 Regulatory compliance

 PMI's Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct



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PMI Practitioner Study Guide

 

Nurse practitioner care during COVID-19

“Better use of the NP workforce is an increasingly popular proposal to address the growing primary care shortage. However, federal, state, and organizational scope of practice policies inhibit NPs from practicing to the full extent of their license and training,” said O’Reilly-Jacob, a family nurse practitioner. “The Massachusetts waiver of NP supervisory requirements granted during the beginning of the pandemic presented a unique opportunity for us to examine if a temporary removal of one layer of restrictions would make a meaningful difference in the day-to-day work of the NPs.”

Their article, “The Effect of Supervision Waivers on Practice: A Survey of Massachusetts Nurse Practitioners during the COVID-19 Pandemic,” showed that a quarter of the nearly 400 NPs who responded found that their work was improved as a result of the waiver of physician oversight.

Psychiatric mental health NPs, compared to those in other NP specialties, were most likely to believe the waiver improved their work. NPs who experienced an increase in working hours during the pandemic surge were also more likely to report a positive effect of the waiver.

O’Reilly-Jacob noted that the vast majority—75 percent—of NPs believed the temporary removal of practice restriction did not perceptibly Boost their day-to-day practice.

“Temporary removal of state-level practice barriers alone is not sufficient to achieve immediate full scope of practice for NPs,” concluded O’Reilly-Jacob. “Now that the state layer of restrictions has been removed, they can begin to examine policies at the organizational and payer level that continue to limit NP practice.”

This survey follows a study O’Reilly-Jacob and Perloff conducted with researchers Moaven Razavi (Brandeis University) and Peter Buerhaus (Montana State University) on the value of NP-provided health care which showed that NPs provide less costly care than physicians. This was true for both healthier and sicker patients. The peer-reviewed article, also published by Medical Care, demonstrated that, prior to implementation of the Affordable Care Act, primary care provided by NPs was up to 34 percent less costly than care provided by physicians.

The cost gap between NPs and MDs was biggest for low-risk patients. “Low-risk patients are where primary care providers have the most discretion, and that’s where NPs really shine,” said Perloff.

“COVID-19 has shown us what a valuable and versatile role the NP workforce plays in their fragile healthcare system,” added O’Reilly- Jacob. “Modernizing NP scope of practice across the practice, state, and federal level will optimize the capacity of the NP workforce to contain health care costs and alleviate the primary care shortage well into the future.”

—Kathleen Sullivan | Office of University Communications | February 2021. Material from Brandeis University was used in this article.


Study Finds Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants Would Alter Patient Care Decisions Based on DecisionDx®-Melanoma Test Results

No result found, try new keyword!CSTL), a company improving health through innovative tests that guide patient care, today announced the publication of a study in the Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology (JADPRO ...

Nurse practitioners lower emergency visits in one Japanese nursing home, study finds

One way of dealing with the shortage of doctors in nursing homes is to utilize nurse practitioners, or NPs. A new study looked at the effects of placing NPs in one nursing home in Japan. 

Programs utilizing NPs in nursing homes started in 2008 in Japan. These clinicians commonly work in long-term care communities in the United States. 

The study aimed to look at the effectiveness of care led by NPs. Nahoko Harada, a researcher at Okayama University, worked with a team of colleagues to learn more about the impacts of this model. The study was published on Dec. 4 in The Journal for Nurse Practitioners.

“In the US, NPs have expanded their role to provide quality healthcare, especially in regions facing physician shortages. As a researcher educated in NPs in the US, I wanted to find evidence regarding the clinical impact of NPs in Japan and their contribution to the health of the population,” Harada said in a statement.

The team evaluated aspects of care including medical expenses, emergency visits and hospitalizations before an NP program started, and after. One cohort of data was from before the NPs were utilized — October 2019 to September 2020 — and the other was from after NPs were introduced — October 2021 to September 2022.  

Data was derived from 229 residents in a nursing home that is located in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. As a result of placing NPs at the nursing home, researchers saw that emergency visits dropped among residents who needed higher levels of care. People who needed advanced care rose, but emergency departmentment visits decreased. 

“The observed reduction in unnecessary hospital visits tied with NPs’ intervention in managing nonhospitalization requiring conditions, underscores their pivotal role in early diagnosis and continuous patient monitoring,” Harada noted.

“In the midst of the demand to reform the way medical personnel work, they were able to provide evidence regarding the maintenance of the quality of medical care by medical practice nurses. This knowledge can be applied to future health care economic benefits from optimizing medical human resources,” Harada said.


 




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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug