Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : PMI-ACP
Exam Name : PMI Agile Certified Practitioner
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PMI-ACP test Format | PMI-ACP Course Contents | PMI-ACP Course Outline | PMI-ACP test Syllabus | PMI-ACP test Objectives

There are 120 questions for the PMI-ACP® test (20 random questions (called as pre-test) from the 120 questions are not to be counted towards the final score)

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Domain I. Agile Principles and Mindset 16%

Domain II. Value-driven Delivery 20%

Domain III. Stakeholder Engagement 17%

Domain IV. Team Performance 16%

Domain V. Adaptive Planning 12%

Domain VI. Problem Detection and Resolution 10%

Domain VII. Continuous Improvement (Product, Process, People) 9%


Domain I. Agile Principles and Mindset (9 tasks)

Explore, embrace, and apply agile principles and mindset within the context of the project
team and organization.

Domain II. Value-Driven Delivery (4 sub-domains, 14 tasks)

Deliver valuable results by producing high-value increments for review, early and often, based on stakeholder priorities. Have the stakeholders provide feedback on these increments,and use this feedback to prioritize and Improve future increments.

Domain III. Stakeholder Engagement (3 sub-domains, 9 tasks)

Engage current and future interested parties by building a trusting environment that aligns their needs and expectations and balances their requests with an understanding of the cost/effort involved. Promote participation and collaboration throughout the project life cycle and provide the tools for effective and informed decision making.

Domain IV. Team Performance (3 sub-domains, 9 tasks)

Create an environment of trust, learning, collaboration, and conflict resolution that promotes team self-organization, enhances relationships among team members, and cultivates a culture of high performance.

Domain V. Adaptive Planning (3 sub-domains, 10 tasks)

Produce and maintain an evolving plan, from initiation to closure, based on goals, values, risks, constraints, stakeholder feedback, and review findings.

Domain VI. Problem Detection and Resolution (5 tasks)

Continuously identify problems, impediments, and risks; prioritize and resolve in a timely manner; monitor and communicate the problem resolution status; and implement process improvements to prevent them from occurring again.

Domain VII. Continuous Improvement (Product, Process, People) (6 tasks)

Continuously Improve the quality, effectiveness, and value of the product, the process, and the team.

Agile values and principles

 Agile frameworks and terminology

 Agile methods and approaches

 Assessing and incorporating community and stakeholder values

 Stakeholder management

 Communication management

 Facilitation methods

 Knowledge sharing/written communication

 Leadership

 Building agile teams

 Team motivation

 Physical and virtual co-location

 Global, cultural, and team diversity

 Training, coaching, and mentoring

 Developmental mastery models (for example, Tuckman, Dreyfus, Shu Ha Ri)

 Self-assessment tools and techniques

 Participatory decision models (for example, convergent, shared collaboration)

 Principles of systems thinking (for example, complex adaptive, chaos)

 Problem solving

 Prioritization

 Incremental delivery

 Agile discovery

 Agile sizing and estimation

 Value based analysis and decomposition

 Process analysis

 Continuous improvement

 Agile hybrid models

 Managing with agile KPIs

 Agile project chartering

 Agile contracting

 Agile project accounting principles

 Regulatory compliance

 PMI's Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct

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PMI PMI boot camp


Learn FPGA Fast With Hackaday’s FPGA Boot Camp

FPGAs have gone from being a niche product for people with big budgets to something that every electronics experimenter ought to have in their toolbox. I am always surprised at how many people I meet who tell me they are interested in using FPGAs but they haven’t started. If you’ve been looking for an easy way to get started with FPGAs, Hackaday’s FPGA boot camp is for you. There’s even a Hackaday.io chat in the group specifically for FPGA talk for questions and general discussion!

While it is true FPGAs aren’t for everything, when you need them you really need them. Using FPGAs you can build logic circuits — not software simulations, but real circuits — and reap major performance benefits compared to a CPU. For digital signal processing, neural networks, or computer vision applications, being able to do everything essentially in parallel is a great benefit. Sometimes you just need the raw speed of a few logic gates compared to a CPU plodding methodically through code. They expect to see a lot more FPGA activity now that Arduino is in the game.

These boot camps gather together some of the material you seen spread over many articles here before, plus new material to flesh it out. It’s designed for you to work through more like a training class than just some text to read. There’s plenty of screenshots and even animations to help you see what you are supposed to be doing. You’ll be able to work with simulations to see how the circuits they talk about work, make changes, and see the results. We’ll focus on Verilog — at least for now — as it is close to C and easier for people who know C to pick up. Still not convinced? Let’s run though the gist of the boot camp series.

Both Simulation and Hardware

What hardware do you need? That depends. Right now they have four boot camps available and you only need real hardware for the final one. The inexpensive Lattice iCeStick demo board is great for your first adventure.

It is cheap (well under $30), has everything you need including a USB programming interface, and there are open source tools. So it makes sense to pick one of these up even if you want to move on to a different FPGA later. Besides, you can always repurpose the board as a logic analyzer once you’ve outgrown it. However, you can go through the first three with no hardware, and you can still follow along on number 4, even if you don’t have the hardware to do the actual work.

What You’ll Find In Each Boot Camp

If you know nothing about digital logic, you probably want to start with Boot Camp 0. By the time you are done with that, you should understand basic logic gates, combinatorial logic, flip flops, and sequential logic. There’s no real FPGA content there, and if you know the difference between a D and a JK flip flop, what setup and hold times are, and how to create a simple state machine, you can probably skip this one.

Boot Camp 1 and Boot Camp 2 doesn’t directly use FPGA hardware. But they take you through building combinatorial and sequential circuits in Verilog. You can simulate your designs in your web browser or using an offline Verilog simulator.

In Boot Camp 3, you’ll actually move the Verilog into an FPGA configuration. You will need the hardware to get the most out of that. After that, there are some articles here on Hackaday.com about other projects with the same hardware that can take you even further along. The good thing is that until you reach the fourth boot camp, what you learn could apply to nearly any FPGA.

Let Us Know How the Tutorials Worked For You!

One thing that sets Hackaday and Hackaday.io apart is that they are a very interactive community. So in addition to the comments they are sure to get, we’d also like your help in a few other ways. If you work through these tutorials, keep track of how much time you’ve spent and let us know. We’ll eventually mark the times to help others plan in the future. In addition, let us know what else you’d like to see. Would you like to see new versions of bootcamp 3 for other FPGAs? Would you like more details about state machines, VHDL, or optimizing designs for timing? Leave your comments on the boot camp page, the tutorials page, or the FPGA chat and let us know what FPGA and non-FPGA subjects you’d like to see covered in this format.

Business Law Boot Camp

An Innovative Business Law Experience

The Business Law Boot Camp is an intensive intersession course held between the spring and summer quarters at Baylor Law. Specifically created for Baylor Law students interested in business transactions, the week-long course offers a practical perspective on multiple aspects of business and its legal requirements and implications. Course material includes forming a business, commercial borrowing, raising capital, trademark and advertising issues, succession planning, selling a business, basic accounting, contract drafting, and negotiation skills.

Bill Shaddock teaching students in a classroom at Baylor Law

Renowned transactional law attorney Bill Shaddock, JD '77, speaks to the class of Baylor Law's Business Law Boot Camp


More Than Just Course Study

Two Colleagues  practicing over a business contract

The content of the course is delivered through both classroom lectures and interactive exercises. Students also take part in special networking events and supplemental opportunities for professional development and mentoring throughout the duration of the course. Throughout the course, influential and inspiring guest speakers share insights and advice with respect to building professional relationships and achieving success as well as the ethical practice of transactional law.

Professors seated at the front of the Baylor Law Classroom discuss Business Law to a full classroom

Taught each year by a team of adjunct professors who are well-established, highly regarded transactional lawyers from practices across the country, the Business Law Boot Camp offers students the benefit of learning from and interacting with some of the best lawyers in the practice of transactional law. These lawyers also see first-hand Baylor Law's commitment to training practice-ready lawyers in the transactional area.


“The Baylor Law Business Law Boot Camp was an invaluable experience. The weeklong program was a crash course of business law essentials presented by phenomenal and passionate attorneys from across Texas. The Boot Camp provided opportunities to network, hear raw stories from private practice, and obtain personalized advice. I am grateful for the lessons I learned from this unique program that will help me begin my legal career with knowledge from experienced professionals.”

—Melissa Samano RuizBaylor Law J.D. Candidate 2022


“Once again, I was impressed by the students' focus at the end of an intensive week, as well as by the smart questions they asked during the M&A discussion. I hope many of these young people will pursue careers as transactional lawyers as a result of Professor Miller's Boot Camp.”

—Tom HarrisPartner - Haynes Boone

Chair of Mergers and Acquisitions Practice Group


Apply to Attend the Business Law Boot Camp

The application and selection process for Business Law Boot Camp takes place in the early weeks of the preceding Winter quarter. Information is distributed to students by the registrar and in the student announcements in November. For more information, please contact program director, Professor Beth Miller at Elizabeth_Miller@baylor.edu

Online Project Management Master's Degree

No result found, try new keyword!While the demand for these professionals is increasing, it varies by industry. The Project Management Institute, an international organization for project managers, estimates that an average of ...

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug