Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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PMI PPM-001 : Professional in Project Management(PPM) exam Dumps

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Exam Number : PPM-001
Exam Name : Professional in Project Management(PPM)
Vendor Name : PMI
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PPM-001 exam Format | PPM-001 Course Contents | PPM-001 Course Outline | PPM-001 exam Syllabus | PPM-001 exam Objectives

Test Detail:
The PMI PPM-001 exam, also known as Professional in Project Management (PPM), is designed to assess the knowledge and skills of project management professionals. The exam evaluates their ability to initiate, plan, execute, monitor, control, and close projects successfully. Passing the exam demonstrates proficiency in project management principles, practices, and methodologies, as well as the ability to apply them in real-world project scenarios.

Course Outline:
The Professional in Project Management (PPM) course provides comprehensive training on project management principles, methodologies, and best practices. The following is a general outline of the key subjects covered in the course:

1. Introduction to Project Management:
- Overview of project management concepts, roles, and responsibilities.
- Understanding project constraints, stakeholders, and success criteria.
- Introduction to project management frameworks and methodologies.

2. Project Initiation:
- Defining project objectives, scope, and deliverables.
- Identifying project stakeholders and establishing communication channels.
- Conducting project feasibility analysis and risk exam.
- Developing a business case and obtaining project approvals.

3. Project Planning:
- Developing a project management plan.
- Creating a project schedule and work breakdown structure (WBS).
- Estimating project resources, costs, and durations.
- Managing project risks and developing a risk mitigation plan.

4. Project Execution and Control:
- Managing project execution and team performance.
- Monitoring project progress and key performance indicators (KPIs).
- Conducting project status meetings and reporting.
- Implementing change control processes and managing project scope.

5. Project Closure:
- Performing project closure activities.
- Conducting lessons learned and project review sessions.
- Documenting project deliverables and final reports.
- Celebrating project success and transitioning deliverables to stakeholders.

Exam Objectives:
The PMI PPM-001 exam assesses candidates' knowledge and skills in project management. The exam objectives include, but are not limited to:

1. Project Initiation and Planning:
- Defining project objectives, scope, and requirements.
- Developing a project management plan and project schedule.
- Identifying project stakeholders and managing their expectations.
- Conducting risk exam and developing risk mitigation strategies.

2. Project Execution and Control:
- Managing project resources and team performance.
- Monitoring project progress and key performance indicators.
- Implementing change control processes and managing project scope.
- Resolving project issues and conflicts.

3. Project Monitoring and Reporting:
- Monitoring project milestones, deliverables, and timelines.
- Collecting and analyzing project data and performance metrics.
- Reporting project status and progress to stakeholders.
- Implementing quality control processes and ensuring project compliance.

4. Project Closure and Evaluation:
- Conducting project closure activities and obtaining project sign-off.
- Performing lessons learned and project review sessions.
- Documenting project deliverables and final reports.
- Ensuring knowledge transfer and transition of project deliverables.

The PMI PPM-001 course syllabus provides a detailed breakdown of the subjects covered in the training program. It includes specific learning objectives, case studies, exercises, and practical application of project management principles. The syllabus may cover the following areas:

- Introduction to project management and PMI methodologies.
- Project initiation and planning.
- Project execution and control.
- Project monitoring and reporting.
- Project closure and evaluation.
- exam preparation and practice tests.
- Final PMI PPM-001 Professional in Project Management Certification Exam.

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PMI Calculator: How Much Is Mortgage Insurance?

Your credit score, debt-to-income ratio and loan-to-value ratio, or LTV, can affect your PMI rate. Borrowers with low credit scores, high DTIs and smaller down payments will typically pay higher mortgage insurance rates. Building your credit score, paying down debt and putting down as much as you can afford may reduce your PMI costs.

Contraction in China factory activity extends into a fourth month

The sunset glow is seen over buildings and a ferris wheel on May 13, 2022 in Beijing, China.

Vcg | Visual China Group | Getty Images

China's factory activity contracted for a fourth consecutive month in July, while non-manufacturing activity slowed to its weakest this year as the world's second-largest economy struggles to revive growth momentum in the wake of soft global demand.

The official manufacturing purchasing managers' index came in at 49.3 in July — compared with 49.0 in June, 48.8 in May and 49.2 in April — according to data from the National Bureau of Statistics released on Monday. July's reading was slightly better than the 49.2 median forecast in a Reuters poll.

Monday's figures also showed China posting its weakest official non-manufacturing PMI reading this year, coming in at 51.5 in July — compared with 53.2 in June, 54.5 in May and 56.4 in April. A PMI reading above 50 points to an expansion in activity, while a reading below that level suggests a contraction.

"Although China's manufacturing PMI rebounded to 49.3% this month, some enterprises in the survey reported that the current external environment is complicated and severe, overseas orders have decreased, and insufficient demand is still the main difficulty facing enterprises," Zhao Qinghe, a senior NBS official, wrote in an accompanying statement Monday.

These readings for July point to the "tortuous" economic recovery that China's top leaders described last Monday, which the Politburo attributed to insufficient domestic demand, difficulties in the operation of some enterprises, many risks and hidden dangers in key areas and a grim and complex external environment.

Rio Tinto CEO says he is 'cautiously optimistic' about China's economic recovery

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Employment sub-indexes for both manufacturing and non-manufacturing sectors declined in July, pointing to lingering softness as youth unemployment hit successive record highs in China. The service industry — a major sector that hires young workers — sub-index slowed 1.3 percentage points in July from the previous month, according to the NBS.

More worryingly, business expectation among the non-manufacturing sectors declined from the previous month.

A similar production and business activity expectation index for manufacturing sectors, though, saw an increase of 1.7 percentage points from the previous month, which the NBS attributed to policy support to grow private enterprises and expand domestic demand.

Extreme weather

The NBS said construction activity, which declined 4.5 percentage points in July from the month before, was hit by extreme weather conditions.

"Downward pressure on manufacturing eased slightly. But this was more than outweighed by a sharp deceleration in construction and cooling services activity," said Julian Evans-Pritchard, head of China at Capital Economics.

"Policy support should drive a turnaround later this year. But with officials taking a restrained approach to stimulus, any reacceleration in growth is likely to be modest," he added.

Holcim CEO says he's 'surprised' China's recovery is taking longer than expected

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Still, there were some nascent green shoots.

There were month-on-month improvements in the new orders and raw materials inventory sub-indexes, which helped underpin the slightly better-than-expected manufacturing PMI reading.

The purchase price index and ex-factory price index of major raw materials saw meaningful increases from the previous month, the NBS said, pointing to an improvement in pricing power.

Read more about China from CNBC Pro

Correction: This story was updated to correct the month for the latest PMI data.

Services PMI jumps to 62.3 in July, highest in more than 13 years

India's services activity spiked sharply to 62.3 in July from a Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) of 58.5 in June, according to data released by S&P Global on August 3.

At 62.3, the July services PMI is the highest print in over 13 years. The last time it was higher was in June 2010. It has also stayed above the key level of 50 that separates expansion in activity from a contraction for 24 months in a row.

The PMI is a survey-based indicator based on the responses of around 400 service companies. The sectors it covers includes non-retail consumer services, transport, information, communication, finance, insurance, real estate, and business services. An index is calculated for each sector, all of which are then combined to provide an overall PMI figure.

Given that the PMI measures change in activity from the previous month and is seasonally adjusted, it is seen as a good indicator of the momentum in economic activity. Further, it is the most immediately available data point – the PMI for any given month, both for the services and manufacturing sectors, is released in the first week of the subsequent month.

In comparison, official data on economic activity – such as the Index of Industrial Production or the index of eight core industries – are released with a lag of a month or more. As such, PMI data is seen as a lead indicator of the state of the economy and policymakers often rely on it to inform their decisions.

The latest services PMI data comes two days after S&P Global said the manufacturing PMI eased slightly to 57.7 in July from 57.8 in June. As a result of the significant increase in the services PMI, the composite PMI - which is a combination of the manufacturing and services indices - rose to 61.9 from 59.4 in June.

July services activity

The sharp up-turn in the services PMI in July was down to stronger demand conditions, which boosted new orders. As per S&P Global's survey, the improvement in demand for Indian services in July was the most in more than 13 years during July, with around 29 percent of respondents reporting higher intakes of new business.

International orders also picked up and posted the second-highest increase since the series started in September 2014, with demand growing the most in Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and the United Arab Emirates.

"The broad increases in sales across the domestic and international markets are particularly welcoming news, especially in light of the challenging global economic scenario," noted Pollyanna De Lima, Economics Associate Director at S&P Global Market Intelligence.

Even though pressure on service providers' capacities only increased slightly in July, S&P Global said its survey showed staff hiring continued at a pace "broadly similar" to that in May and June.

Price pressures

While policymakers will be enthused by the rising activity levels, higher prices will be a dampener. In July, services providers' input costs rose at the fastest pace in 13 months, with food, labour, and transportation costs being noteworthy.

However, while prices charged to customers were also increased, they rose at the slowest rate in three months.

"Anecdotal evidence highlighted cautious pricing strategies among survey members, owing to efforts aimed at preventing any negative impact on new business," S&P Global said.

The sharpest increase in input costs was seen in consumer services, while real estate and business services saw the highest rise in prices charged to customers.

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI), which will announce its next interest rate decision exactly one week later on August 10, has left the policy repo rate unchanged at 6.5 percent so far in 2023-24.

Also Read: Nomura pushes back RBI rate cut call by 4 months, hikes FY24 inflation forecast by 50 bps

However, headline retail inflation has broken its falling streak and is expected to crash past the upper-bound of the central bank's 2-6 percent tolerance band in July, data for which will be released on August 14, on the back of wildly higher vegetable prices, particularly of tomatoes. As such, while the Monetary Policy Committee is not expected to increase the repo rate again - it had done so by 250 basis points in 2022-23 - calls for a rate cut are being pushed back by some economists.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug