Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Your Top Health Questions of 2023, Answered

One thing I love about editing the Ask Well column is the camaraderie of it. Every week they answer a health question: Why am I so congested all the time? (I’ve wondered that, too!) Why does my sleep get worse as I age? (I’m right there with you.) Is my coffee habit in need of an intervention? (Pour me another while they figure it out.)

When I survey their inbox, I’m amazed at what comes in — questions that cover the joys, agonies, confusions and vulnerabilities of being a person. And luckily for us all, they get to seek out the answers.

Here are 10 of the most popular health questions of 2023.

1. Is it bad to wash your hair every day?

The answer depends on your hair texture, how oily it is, whether it’s color-treated and more.

“While it may seem that getting the scalp squeaky clean and without any oils is optimal,” said Dr. Murad Alam, a dermatologist at Northwestern University, “keep in mind that the scalp is a living part of your body, and not a dinner plate in your dishwasher.”

2. Is arthritis avoidable?

Pain, stiffness and swelling of the joints are common complaints for older adults — and they can be the first sign of a dreaded diagnosis: arthritis. This umbrella term describes more than 100 conditions that cause inflammation in the joints. But it doesn’t have to be an inevitable result of aging. Here are some steps you can take to reduce your risk.

4. Can a nap make up for a bad night of sleep?

Maybe you stayed up too late doomscrolling, or you whipped your sheets into a tornado replaying an uncomfortable conversation. Either way, you’re wondering: Will a midday nap make up for those precious hours of lost shut-eye? The answer is complicated, they found. Here’s what naps can — and can’t — do for your health.

5. Why am I so congested all the time?

So you wake up every morning all stuffed up and you want to know what’s going on. Is it that cold you (and everyone else) seem to have? The anatomy of your nose? Allergies? Chronic congestion is tricky to treat, experts say, because any number of things could be causing it. But there are some ways to find relief.

6. What should I eat or drink when I have a cold?

If that stuffiness is indeed caused by a cold, turn to foods and drinks that are hydrating, nourishing and comforting (hello, chicken noodle soup!). Here’s a look at how nutrition can help fight your infection, along with what foods and drinks to avoid.

7. Why does it become harder to sleep as I age?

As a flagrant tosser and turner, I’ve noticed that the older I get, the less likely I am to wake up refreshed. It turns out there are medical reasons for that: An aging brain, certain health conditions, hormones and lifestyle changes could all be the cause. The good news is that sleepless nights are not a fate you have to live with.

8. Why do I get constipated when I travel?

Any activity that interrupts your regular eating or sleeping schedule risks backing you up. Dehydration, immobility, changing time zones and an altered diet are typically to blame. Here’s how to get things running a little more smoothly when you’re out and about.

9. Do I really need all those skin care products?

If you spend any time on the personal-care side of social media, you’ll see video after video of influencers dousing themselves in an entire medicine cabinet’s worth of products. But simpler is often better when it comes to taking care of your face. Here’s what dermatologists say you actually need.

10. How much coffee is too much coffee?

Raise your hand if you’re drinking coffee while reading this. Keep it raised if you’re on your second (or third or fourth) cup of the day. Coffee contains thousands of chemical compounds that may be linked to good health. But it’s also a major source of caffeine, which in excess can cause issues like jitteriness, anxiousness, nausea and trouble sleeping. While experts say that dangerous side effects from coffee-drinking are rare, it’s still possible to overdo it. Here’s how to know if you’ve poured yourself too much.

Have more questions for their health journalists? Ask Well.


These Were the Most Googled Sex Questions of 2023

The subject of sex was mystifying for many people before the internet came along, particularly those wondering about specific things such as what body part goes where or whether certain types of discharge are normal. Of course, now, thanks to Google, the answers to their deepest, darkest questions are just a click away.

To get a better idea of exactly which sex-related courses people had on their minds in 2023, Google released a list of the top 10 most searched sex questions of the year, provided to Cosmopolitan UK. Although the data is specific to their friends across the pond, it gives us a general enough picture of what queries were trending over the past 12 months.

Starting off, the top most searched question people were dying to know about was "What is speed bump sex position?" which began trending after Love Island contestant Tom Clare remarked that it was his favorite sex position. For the uninitiated, the move is similar to doggy style, except that the woman lies face-down with a pillow under her hips to raise her pelvis.

From there, people wondered if you can have sex while pregnant. And by the way, you absolutely can, but may want to consult with your doctor first. The third-most searched question was "What is sex positivity?" which involves a positive attitude towards sex without shame or stigma.

After that, in number four, people wondered why they bleed after sex. While some bleeding is normal, this is another question best left for your doctor.

In fifth place people asked how many dates they should go on before having sex. Of course, though navigating a new relationship can be tricky, that answer varies depending on what an individual or couple is most comfortable with.

Check out the top 10, below:

  • What is speed bump sex position?

  • Can you have sex when pregnant?

  • What is sex positivity?

  • Why do I bleed after having sex?

  • How many dates should you go on before having sex?

  • How many calories do you burn during sex?

  • How long after a miscarriage can you have sex?

  • What is anal sex?

  • Why do I have no sex drive female

  • How do fish have sex?


  • Your Top Health Questions of 2023, Answered

    One thing I love about editing the Ask Well column is the camaraderie of it. Every week, they answer a health question: Why am I so congested all the time? (I’ve wondered that, too!) Why does my sleep get worse as I age? (I’m right there with you.) Is my coffee habit in need of an intervention? (Pour me another while they figure it out.)

    When I survey their inbox, I’m amazed at what comes in — questions that cover the joys, agonies, confusions and vulnerabilities of being a person. And luckily for us all, they get to seek out the answers.

    Sign up for The Morning newsletter from the New York Times

    Here are 10 of the most popular health questions of 2023.

    1. Is it bad to wash your hair every day?

    The answer depends on your hair texture, how oily it is, whether it’s color-treated and more.

    “While it may seem that getting the scalp squeaky clean and without any oils is optimal,” said Dr. Murad Alam, a dermatologist at Northwestern University, “keep in mind that the scalp is a living part of your body and not a dinner plate in your dishwasher.”

    2. Is arthritis avoidable?

    Pain, stiffness and swelling of the joints are common complaints for older adults — and they can be the first sign of a dreaded diagnosis: arthritis. This umbrella term describes more than 100 conditions that cause inflammation in the joints. But it doesn’t have to be an inevitable result of aging.

    3. I drink alcohol. What can I do about the damage?

    It’s becoming clearer and clearer that even a little alcohol is bad for you — with links to cancer, cardiovascular issues and liver disease. While there’s no magic antidote to erase the harmful effects of a wild night out, there are some measures you can take to boost your health if you enjoy the occasional cocktail.

    4. Can a nap make up for a bad night of sleep?

    Maybe you stayed up too late doomscrolling, or you whipped your sheets into a tornado replaying an uncomfortable conversation. Either way, you’re wondering: Will a midday nap make up for those precious hours of lost shut-eye? The answer is complicated, they found.

    5. Why am I so congested all the time?

    So, you wake up every morning all stuffed up, and you want to know what’s going on. Is it that cold you (and everyone else) seem to have? The anatomy of your nose? Allergies? Chronic congestion is tricky to treat, experts say, because any number of things could be causing it. But there are ways to find relief.

    6. What should I eat or drink when I have a cold?

    If that stuffiness is indeed caused by a cold, turn to foods and drinks that are hydrating, nourishing and comforting (hello, chicken noodle soup!).

    7. Why does it become harder to sleep as I age?

    As a flagrant tosser and turner, I’ve noticed that the older I get, the less likely I am to wake up refreshed. It turns out there are medical reasons for that: An aging brain, certain health conditions, hormones and lifestyle changes could all be the cause. The good news is that sleepless nights are not a fate you have to live with.

    8. Why do I get constipated when I travel?

    Any activity that interrupts your regular eating or sleeping schedule risks backing you up. Dehydration, immobility, changing time zones and an altered diet are typically to blame.

    9. Do I really need all those skin care products?

    If you spend any time on the personal-care side of social media, you’ll see video after video of influencers dousing themselves in an entire medicine cabinet’s worth of products. But simpler is often better when it comes to taking care of your face.

    10. How much coffee is too much coffee?

    Raise your hand if you’re drinking coffee while reading this. Keep it raised if you’re on your second (or third or fourth) cup of the day. Coffee contains thousands of chemical compounds that may be linked to good health. But it’s also a major source of caffeine, which in excess can cause issues like jitteriness, anxiousness, nausea and trouble sleeping. While experts say that dangerous side effects from coffee-drinking are rare, it’s still possible to overdo it.

    c.2023 The New York Times Company


     


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug