Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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The National Merit Scholarship Program is an academic competition for recognition and
college scholarships that began in 1955. High school students enter the National Merit
Scholarship Program by taking the Preliminary SAT/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying
Test (PSAT/NMSQT®), which serves as an initial screen of approximately 1.6 million entrants
each year, and by meeting published program entry and participation requirements.

To enter the National Merit Scholarship Program and compete for recognition and 8,700
scholarships to be offered in 2021:

• Take the PSAT/NMSQT in October 2019.

• Meet other entry requirements.

Program entrants must take the test in the specified year of the high school program
(see page 6). The 2019 PSAT/NMSQT is the qualifying test for entry to the 2021
program. Most entrants will complete high school and enroll in college in 2021.



The National Merit® Scholarship Program is an annual
academic competition among high school students for
recognition and college scholarships. The program is
conducted by National Merit Scholarship Corporation
(NMSC), a not-for-profit organization that operates
without government assistance.

The 2019 Preliminary SAT/National Merit Scholarship
Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT®) is the qualifying
test for entry to the 2021 National Merit Program. (The
PSAT™ 10 and PSAT™ 8/9 will NOT be considered for
entry to the National Merit Scholarship Program.) The
competition will span about 18 months from entry in the
fall of 2019 until the spring of 2021 when scholarships
for college undergraduate study will be awarded. It is
expected that about 4 million students will take the
PSAT/NMSQT in 2019, and approximately 1.6 million
of them will meet requirements to enter this program.



To enter the 2021 National Merit Program, a student
needs to meet all of the following requirements. A
student must:

1. be enrolled as a high school student (traditional
or homeschooled), progressing normally toward
graduation or completion of high school by 2021,
and planning to accept admission to college no later
than the fall of 2021;

2. attend high school in the United States, District of
Columbia, or U.S. commonwealths and territories;
or meet the citizenship requirements for students
attending high school outside the United States (see
below);



To participate in the National Merit Program, students
must take the PSAT/NMSQT in the specified year of
their high school program. Because a student can
participate (and be considered for a scholarship) in
only one specific competition year, the year in which
the student takes the PSAT/NMSQT to enter the
competition is very important.

1. Students who plan to spend the usual four years in
high school (grades 9 through 12) before entering
college full time must take the qualifying test in
their third year of high school (grade 11, junior year).
Sophomores who take the 2019 PSAT/NMSQT
but plan to spend four years in grades 9 through
12 will not meet entry requirements for the 2021
National Merit Program. They must take the
PSAT/NMSQT again in 2020 (when they are
juniors) to enter the competition that will end
when scholarships are awarded in 2022, the year
they will complete high school and enter college.

2. Students who plan to leave high school early to
enroll in college full time after spending three years
or less in grades 9 through 12 usually can participate
in the National Merit Program if they take the
PSAT/NMSQT before they enroll in college. To
enter the competition for awards offered in 2021,
these students must be in either the next-to-last or
the last year of high school when they take the 2019
PSAT/NMSQT:

a. if they are in the next-to-last year of high school
when they take the 2019 PSAT/NMSQT, awards
will be offered as they are finishing their last year
of high school; or

b. if they are in their last year of high school when
they take the 2019 PSAT/NMSQT, awards will
be offered the year after they have completed
high school.



Students who plan to participate in a postsecondary enrollment options program (through
which they enroll simultaneously in both high school
and college) must take the qualifying test in their
third year of high school (grade 11, junior year). To
enter the competition that ends when scholarships
are offered in 2021, these students must be in their
third year of high school when they take the 2019
PSAT/NMSQT, the same as all other students who
plan to spend four years in grades 9 through 12.
The high school determines whether a student is
participating in a post-secondary enrollment options
program and certifies the students status.

4. Students who plan to take five years to complete
grades 9 through 12 can participate in the National
Merit Program if they take the PSAT/NMSQT in
the third year of high school and again in the fourth
year. These students Selection Index scores will not
be eligible for the program until a written request
for entry to the competition is approved by NMSC.
The request should include the students name, high
school name and location, year the student began
high school, year the student will complete high
school, and a brief explanation of the students
educational pattern.

NMSC will use the students Selection Index score
from the PSAT/NMSQT taken in the students third year
of grades 9 through 12 to determine the expected level
of recognition. In order to be recognized in the fifth
(final) year of high school, the student must take
the PSAT/NMSQT again in the fourth year, and
earn a qualifying Selection Index score at or above
the level achieved on the third year test. The level
of recognition a student receives cannot exceed the
level earned on the qualifying test taken during the
students third year in grades 9 through 12, the year
in which all other competitors are considered.



NMSC uses PSAT/NMSQT Selection Index scores
(calculated by doubling the sum of the Reading,
Writing and Language, and Math Test scores) as an
initial screen of some 1.6 million program entrants.
The 2019 Selection Index scores of all students who
meet entry requirements for the 2021 program will be
considered. In the spring of 2020, NMSC will ask high
school principals to identify any errors or changes in the
reported eligibility of their high scorers (students whose
Selection Index scores will qualify them for recognition
in the fall of 2020).

Commended Students. In September 2020, more than
two-thirds (about 34,000) of the high scorers will be
designated Commended Students. They will be named
on the basis of a nationally applied Selection Index
qualifying score that may vary from year to year.
In recognition of their outstanding ability and
potential for academic success in college, these students
will be honored with Letters of Commendation sent to
them through their high schools. Although Commended
Students will not continue in the competition for
National Merit Scholarships, some may be candidates
for Special Scholarships offered by corporate sponsors. NMSC will notify those candidates in
November 2020.

Semifinalists. Some 16,000 of the high scorers,
representing less than 1 percent of the nations high
school graduating seniors, will qualify as Semifinalists.
Only Semifinalists will have an opportunity to advance
in the competition for Merit Scholarship® awards.
NMSC will notify Semifinalists of their standing and
send scholarship application materials to them through
their high schools in September 2020. Their names will
be sent to regionally accredited four-year U.S. colleges
and universities and released to local news media for
public announcement in mid-September.

NMSC designates Semifinalists in the program on a
state-representational basis to ensure that academically
able young people from all parts of the United States
are included in this talent pool. Using the latest data
available, an allocation of Semifinalists is determined for
each state, based on the states percentage of the national
total of high school graduating seniors. For example,
the number of Semifinalists in a state that enrolls
approximately two percent of the nations graduating
seniors would be about 320 (2 percent of the 16,000
Semifinalists).

NMSC then arranges the Selection Index scores of
all National Merit Program participants within a state in
descending order. The score at which a states allocation
is most closely filled becomes the Semifinalist qualifying
score. Entrants with a Selection Index score at or above
the qualifying score are named Semifinalists. As a result
of this process, Semifinalist qualifying scores vary from
state to state and from year to year, but the scores of all
Semifinalists are extremely high.

In addition to Semifinalists designated in each of
the 50 states and without affecting the allocation to any
state, Semifinalists are named in several other selection
units that NMSC establishes for the competition. These
units are for students attending schools in the District of
Columbia, schools in U.S. commonwealths and territories,
schools in other countries that enroll U.S. citizens, and
U.S. boarding schools that enroll a sizable proportion of
their students from outside the state in which the school
is located. A participant can be considered for Semifinalist
standing in only one state or selection unit, based on the
high school in which the student is regularly enrolled
when taking the PSAT/NMSQT.

Finalists. A Semifinalist must fulfill several additional
requirements and advance to the Finalist level of the
competition before being considered for a National
Merit Scholarship. Over 90 percent (about 15,000)
of the Semifinalists are expected to become Finalists
and receive a Certificate of Merit attesting to their
distinguished performance in the competition.
Only Finalists will be considered for the 7,600 National
Merit Scholarships. Approximately half of the Finalists
will be Merit Scholarship winners (Merit Scholar®
awardees). Winners are chosen on the basis of their
abilities, skills, and accomplishments—without regard
to gender, race, ethnic origin, or religious preference.
Scholarship recipients are the candidates judged to have
the greatest potential for success in rigorous college
studies and beyond.

To receive a scholarship payment, a Merit Scholarship
winner must notify NMSC of plans to (a) enroll in a
college or university in the United States that holds
accredited status with a regional accrediting commission
on higher education, and (b) enroll full time in an
undergraduate course of study leading to a traditional
baccalaureate degree. NMSC scholarship stipends are
not payable for attendance at service academies or
certain institutions that are limited in their purposes
or training.

The selection process involves evaluating substantial
amounts of information about Finalists obtained from
both students and their high schools. Included are the
Finalists academic record (course load and difficulty
level, depth and breadth of subjects studied, and grades
earned); standardized test scores; the students essay;
demonstrated leadership and contributions to school
and community activities; and the school officials written
recommendation and characterization of the Finalist.
The same process is used to select Special Scholarship
winners for a corporate sponsors awards.

Types of Scholarships
Some 7,600 National Merit Scholarships of three types
and approximately 1,100 Special Scholarships will
be awarded in 2021; these 8,700 awards will have a
combined value of about $41 million. Different types of
scholarships will be offered, but no student can receive
more than one monetary award from NMSC.

National Merit® $2500 Scholarships. These awards are
unique because every Finalist is considered for one and
winners are named in every state and other selection
unit. The number awarded in each state is determined by
the same representational procedure used to designate
Semifinalists. Finalists compete with all other Finalists in
their state or selection unit for one of the 2,500 National
Merit $2500 Scholarships. Winners are selected by a
committee of college admission officers and high school
counselors.

National Merit $2500 Scholarships provide a single
payment of $2,500. NMSCs own funds support the
majority of these scholarships, but corporate sponsors
help underwrite these awards with grants they provide
to NMSC in lieu of paying administrative fees.



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Gov. Newsom vetoes allowing districts to substitute SAT for 11th grade state test

sbac, smarter balanced, CAASPP, common core

Credit: iStockphoto.com

The article was updated on Oct. 15 with a comment from the College Board.

Gov. Gavin Newsom vetoed legislation on Sunday that would have let school districts substitute the SAT or ACT college entrance exams for the state’s standardized 11th grade math and reading/writing tests to meet state and federal testing requirements.

In a four-paragraph message, Newsom said that instead of encouraging access to college, the bill could have “the opposite effect.” Using the SAT and ACT “exacerbates the inequalities for underrepresented students,” he wrote, since performance “is highly correlated with race and parental income and is not the best predictor for college success.”

Newsom also indicated passage would be premature, since the state’s public universities are discussing the possibility of using the state’s 11th grade tests, called Smarter Balanced, for admissions or eligibility purposes. “This would be a better approach to improving access to college for underrepresented students and reducing ‘test fatigue,’” Newsom wrote. Former Gov. Jerry Brown cited a similar reason in vetoing a nearly identical bill last year.

Assemblyman Patrick O’Donnell, D-Long Beach, the author of both bills, said Sunday, vetoing the bill “harms their efforts to ensure that all California students have a chance to attend college. AB 751 would have built college entrance exams into the school culture and school day.”

O’Donnell had argued that Assembly Bill 751 would expand access to college and bridge an equity gap. Both this year and last, the bill received nearly unanimous approval in the Legislature. The California School Boards Association and the Association of California School Administrators Association backed it.

But, indicating ambivalence on the issue, the Legislature also passed a resolution asking California State University trustees and University of California regents to study the “usefulness, effectiveness and need” of college entrance exams ­— something that UC has already undertaken.

At their meeting in September, several UC regents urged a task force of the UC faculty studying the future use of SAT and ACT to expedite its work. The committee is expected to make policy recommendations to the trustees early next year.

Among their options, the trustees could phase out or de-emphasize the use of the SAT and ACT, use the tests to determine overall UC eligibility but not for specific admissions decisions, or make the tests optional, as more than 1,000 colleges and some public universities have done.

If they are serious about potentially using scores on Smarter Balanced as a factor for college admissions, the regents could order the next step, a formal study to see if that would be feasible and appropriate. Former State Board of Education President Michael Kirst and former State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson urged them to do that.

Whatever the faculty committee recommends and the regents decide will not take effect for four years, UC task force co-chair Henry Sanchez, a pathology professor at UC San Francisco, told EdSource.

The CSU doesn’t require students to take the SAT or ACT, although a good score can increase the chances of admission to the campus of their choice. The UC does require applicants to take one of the college readiness tests.

Districts’ arguments for bill 

Four dozen school districts, including Los Angeles Unified, currently either strongly encourage or require all juniors to take the SAT or ACT at school, at the districts’ expense. Superintendents cite pragmatic and strategic reasons. As long as colleges require and use the SAT and ACT, then districts should do what it can to help level the playing field, they said. A free and universal SAT can be an equalizer, vital to qualifying more low-income and minority students for college, they argued.

Some districts offer their own test prep courses in conjunction with online help that the Khan Academy provides in a partnership with the College Board, publisher of the SAT. Khan and the College Board released a study two years ago showing their prep course significantly raised test scores. San Jose Unified invests a large portion of its Title I federal funding for high schools in contracting with Kaplan Test Prep for in-classroom instruction.

O’Donnell said the SAT or ACT for all would draw in students who are capable of attending a university but wouldn’t have taken a college entrance exam. Introducing the PSAT in 9th and 10th grades, as Long Beach and other districts do, fosters aspirations for college while laying out what students need to work on to Improve their math and memorizing skills, he said. The state doesn’t offer a standardized math or English language arts test in 9th or 10th grade.

The veto “is an unfortunate, missed opportunity to support underrepresented minority students across California,” the College Board, creator of the SAT, said in a statement. “This bill would’ve helped open doors to higher education by giving students the opportunity to take a college entrance test during the school day in class for free.”

Proponents of the bill also say the SAT and ACT option would provide relief for students burdened by “testing fatigue” from a heavy load of tests in their junior year.

Opponents of using the SAT and ACT for admissions include Eloy Ortiz Oakley, chancellor of California Community Colleges and a member of UC board of trustees, plus advocacy groups for underrepresented minority students including Education-Trust West, Public Advocates and the Campaign for College Opportunity. They too criticized the tests for favoring wealthy students who can afford expensive test-prep tutoring to raise their scores.

“Of all college admission criteria, scores on nationally normed tests like the SAT and ACT are most affected by the socioeconomic background of the student,” Saul Geiser, former director of admissions research for the UC system, wrote two years ago. “The effect of socioeconomic background on test scores has grown substantially at University of California over the past two decades and tests have become more of a barrier to admission of disadvantaged students.”

Opponents also pointed to research by UC Davis Professor Michal Kurlaender, who found that high school grades are a better predictor of student performance in the first year at CSU than either SAT and ACT (SAT was a slightly better predictor at UC).

The SAT and ACT measure students’ readiness for college. The Smarter Balanced tests were designed to measure students’ progress in mastering the Common Core math and memorizing standards and, through ratings on the California School Dashboard, to measure how well schools and districts are teaching the standards.

Edward Haertel, an emeritus professor of education at Stanford University, said passing AB 751 would be “very unwise,” because it assumes scores from schools and districts using different tests, developed to different specifications to serve different purposes, can be accurately compared. “We may wish such a thing were possible, but it simply cannot be done,” he wrote in a letter to the Senate Education Committee.

Since Smarted Balanced wasn’t designed as a college admissions test, researchers would have to examine if it could be used for that purpose — and whether making it a high-stakes test, potentially spawning a new test-prep industry, would create some of the equity issues that critics have leveled against the SAT.

O’Donnell on Sunday dismissed Smarter Balanced as “an antiquated test that never matured into the test system parents, students and teachers across their state were promised.” And he promised to continue to expand the opportunity for all students to attend college.

“We should all hope that the veto of AB 751 is not a signal that their attempts to innovate and Improve their California educational system are over or controlled by those who fear change,” he wrote.


 




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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug