Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : PSPO-I
Exam Name : Professional Scrum Product Owner I
Vendor Name : Scrum
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PSPO-I exam Format | PSPO-I Course Contents | PSPO-I Course Outline | PSPO-I exam Syllabus | PSPO-I exam Objectives


Course Outline: Scrum PSPO-I Professional Scrum Product Owner I

I. Introduction to Scrum and Agile Principles
A. Overview of Scrum framework
B. Agile values and principles
C. Roles and responsibilities in Scrum

II. Product Owner Role and Responsibilities
A. Understanding the Product Owner role
B. Defining product vision and goals
C. Creating and managing the product backlog
D. Prioritizing and refining backlog items

III. Product Discovery and Stakeholder Engagement
A. User research and market analysis
B. Stakeholder identification and engagement
C. Gathering and managing product requirements
D. Techniques for effective product discovery

IV. Release Planning and Roadmapping
A. Creating release plans and timelines
B. Estimating and forecasting product delivery
C. Managing dependencies and trade-offs
D. Agile release management practices

V. Backlog Management and Refinement
A. Backlog grooming and refinement techniques
B. Story writing and user story mapping
C. Splitting and prioritizing backlog items
D. Techniques for backlog visualization and communication

VI. Sprint Planning and Execution
A. Sprint planning meeting and objectives
B. Collaborating with the development team
C. Acceptance criteria and Definition of Done (DoD)
D. Monitoring and adapting during the sprint

VII. Product Owner and Development Team Collaboration
A. Building a collaborative relationship
B. Effective communication and feedback loops
C. Empowering the development team
D. Resolving conflicts and making decisions

VIII. Product Owner and Scrum Team Alignment
A. Working with the Scrum Master and stakeholders
B. Understanding the Scrum events and artifacts
C. Maintaining transparency and accountability
D. Continuous improvement and self-organization

Exam Objectives:
- Understand the Scrum framework and its principles
- Demonstrate knowledge of the Product Owner role and responsibilities
- Apply techniques for product discovery and stakeholder engagement
- Create and manage the product backlog effectively
- Plan releases and roadmaps using Agile practices
- Refine and prioritize backlog items for optimal delivery
- Participate in sprint planning and collaborate with the development team
- Foster collaboration and effective communication within the Scrum team
- Align with the Scrum Master and stakeholders to achieve project goals

Syllabus:
The syllabus for the Scrum PSPO-I Professional Scrum Product Owner I course will cover the following topics:
- Introduction to Scrum and Agile Principles
- Product Owner Role and Responsibilities
- Product Discovery and Stakeholder Engagement
- Release Planning and Roadmapping
- Backlog Management and Refinement
- Sprint Planning and Execution
- Product Owner and Development Team Collaboration
- Product Owner and Scrum Team Alignment



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How to Go Agile in State and Local Government: Scrum vs. PMBOK

In the past few years, as state and local governments sought to modernize and release more digital services to meet the needs of citizens during the coronavirus pandemic, they have embraced an agile approach to government service delivery.

In some cases, government agencies have partnered with nonprofit organizations such as Code for America to become nimbler in their development of government services.

“Adopting agile, iterative technology can solve some of government’s biggest challenges and have a transformative impact on people’s lives — building more equitable systems, improving outcomes and reducing the poverty gap,” Alexis Fernández Garcia, a senior program director of Code for America's social safety net portfolio, writes in a StateTech blog.

Agile methodologies have been on state and local governments’ radars for several years. A 2021 report from the IBM Center for the Business of Government explores how agencies have been using agile not just for software development but for a wide range of use cases.

Those include project management, human resources management, policymaking, and contracting and procurement. Agile builds and tests iteratively to ensure that what is developed is what the organization wants.

As agencies look to Boost their development and delivery of government services to be more responsive to citizens’ needs, they will increasingly — but not exclusively — need to rely on agile approaches and frameworks such as scrum, experts say. At the same time, they face cultural and organizational hurdles to adopting agile methodologies.

Click the banner below for more on agency management by becoming an insider.

What Is Scrum Methodology?

Diego Lo Giudice, vice president and principal analyst at Forrester Research, says it’s important to align with the Agile Manifesto, or the statement of principles that make up the agile methodology, when thinking about how it could apply to government and how scrum fits into that.

For example, in agile, the highest priority is “to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software,” according to the Agile Alliance.

Another key principle is that agile processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage.

Within agile, scrum should be seen as a framework geared toward change, Lo Giudice says. Scrum is a way for software development and other teams to execute and adhere to these principles.

“Scrum is about the way that a software team or a blended cross-functional team operates tactically” in day-to-day operations, says Mike Case, director of growth and delivery operations at Nava, a consultancy and public benefit corporation that works to make government services simple, effective and accessible. “How do they figure out how they’re going to prioritize and divvy up the tactical work at a task level?”

How Can State and Local Governments Use Scrum?

Scrum involves several key concepts, Lo Giudice and Case note, including ceremonies such as quick stand-up meetings to check in on the progress of work and ensuring that updates are focused on what team members need from each other and what the key impediments or blockers there are to progress.

Additionally, scrum is focused on autonomy for teams and delivering value for the business or agency. “It privileges communication between people” rather than one person writing a document that is handed over stating what the person requesting a project wants. In a traditional “waterfall” approach to project management, another person would read those requirements.

“Scrum says, sit down and work directly — face to face or through collaboration tools — and communicate,” Lo Giudice says. “It’s communication over contracts.”

Another key element of scrum is to focus on making progress in increments, or sprints. In a sprint, Case says, teams focus on “dividing projects up into smaller chunks so that you don’t have this one giant deliverable in four months; you have a lot of different two- or three-week sprints to break up the project and also assess your progress as you’re going along.”

During that cycle, teams will go through the analysis, design, coding and testing, operating in a fashion of continuous iteration and continuous delivery. This allows teams to start delivering features that are valuable instead of the full product, Lo Giudice says.

“Instead of thinking about the full product, they start thinking about smaller features that can be delivered and added over time to build the product,” he says. “Instead of taking four months and having a big deliverable after four months, you start delivering every two to four weeks.” 

What Is PMBOK?

In contrast to scrum sits the Project Management Institute’s Project Management Body of Knowledge, a project management framework that is more prescriptive than scrum. PMBOK emphasizes a significant amount of upfront planning and a high level of detail early on in the development process.

PMBOK defines roles more clearly, Lo Giudice says. It also emphasizes documentation as well as the role of the project manager, who is tasked with maintaining and updating project schedules. In scrum, there is no similar organization and updating of project schedules because teams are self-managed.

In the PMBOK approach, project managers interface with the business and stakeholders and report on the project status. The scrum approach is more transparent and everyone tends to know what is going on because they can look at the progress being made on sprints.

There is no one-size-fits all approach to government service delivery, Case says. In cases where there are strict timeline constraints mandated by a legislature, it may be more difficulty to apply a scrum framework. “You have to pick and choose depending on your requirements,” Case says.

Most government agencies have not full adopted scrum or PMBOK, Case says, “so, even if you’re fully committed to agile, you need to be able to translate and connect that to other methodologies being used in other dependent agencies or systems so that you’re not totally separated.” 

How Do Agile Methodology Principles Impact Government Agencies?

In government, where the creation and launch of new services has historically taken significantly longer than in the private sector, agile approaches allow government software developers, project managers and program certified the opportunity to iterate more quickly, pivot on projects and get new services out to citizens faster.

Case says it lets them “see the progress, not hear theoretical updates about percent complete, but to see, ‘What does that front-end user interface look like today? OK, they understand it’s not done, but great, you’re heading in that direction. They expect you’re implementing user research that they hadn’t considered. Great, keep going.’”

Agile allows government officials involved in policy creation to get involved in the development of services and make comments that can be easily incorporated into software or service development, Case says. “And if you’re waiting until the end to see working software, you’re more likely as a policy or program expert to hear, ‘Well, that would be too hard now to change or implement,’” Case adds.  

Lo Giudice says that with agile, government officials “will find out sooner rather than later” whether services are shaping up as expected. “You can make mistakes. And the mistakes that you’ll make are much smaller because you’re breaking the problem of it to sub-problems,” he adds. “You won’t find out six months later that this is not what the business wanted.”

LEARN MORE: Find out about how state and local agencies are moving forward on agile.

What Challenges Do Governments Face in Implementing Agile?

While state and local government agencies have made progress in adopting agile methodologies and frameworks such as scrum, they face obstacles to doing so, Lo Giudice and Case say.

One major impediment is the structure of government procurement, where contracts tend to adhere to the PMBOK approach for project delivery. Requests for proposals tend to be anti-agile, Lo Giudice says. A better approach might be to, for example, break up a $2 million contract into 10 $200,000 contracts so that the process can be more flexible. “It’s crucial to change how the work is given out to the vendors,” he says.

Doing so is difficult, Case acknowledges, since changing contract development processes that have been in place for years is institutionally difficult. But, Case says, it’s crucial to fund and “make the space for these different ways of working and let new good habits form in those spaces.”

Another big challenge is changing government agencies’ cultures to embrace agile, according to Case. “Doing organizational change like this can be a pretty massive undertaking,” Case says. “And to do it successfully, I think you have to scale it back and start small.”

Government IT leaders who want to implement agile should start small by identifying the most valuable opportunities where they can experiment, whether through procurement circumstances or having the right personnel in place. 

It’s important to not go all-in at first, Case says, and instead try agile on a small scale. “If it’s successful, we’ll introduce this new concept,” Case says.

Cultural changes and changes in the way teams collaborate pave the way for the introduction of new technologies and project management tools that can make approaches like scrum easier to implement. “I think you have to start with the culture and the intent and the change management of processes,” Case says.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug