Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Vendor Name : HDI
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QQ0-401 test Format | QQ0-401 Course Contents | QQ0-401 Course Outline | QQ0-401 test Syllabus | QQ0-401 test Objectives


EXAM CODE: QQ-401
EXAM NAME: SDI-Service Desk Foundation Qualification

The Service Desk Institute (SDI) has been connecting service desk professionals across the world since 1988 and is the leading global community for everyone working in the service desk industry. Their mission is to inspire service desks and support teams to be brilliant.

Domain 1: Professionalism and Roles

Module 1: Service Desk

Purpose of the Service Desk
Activities of the Service Desk that Demonstrate its Values
Role of Service Desk Leadership and Management
Module 2: Service Desk Analyst

Role of the Service Desk Analyst
Responsibilities of the Service Desk Analyst
Module 3: Best Practice

Sources of Service Desk and IT Methodologies and Best Practice
Maintain Knowledge of IT Standards, Frameworks, and Methodologies
Module 4: Policies and Governance
Purpose of Organisational Policies
Areas Covered by Organisational Policies
Module 5: Personal Accountability

Importance of Making and Honouring Commitments
How to Protect and Enhance the Image of the Service Desk=>
Module 6: Service Attitude

Explain the Terms: Attributes, Skills and Knowledge
Characteristics of a Good Service Attitude
Impact of a Good Service Attitude
Skills Required to Deliver Excellent Customer Service
Module 7: Teamwork

Basic Concepts of Teamwork
Responsibilities of People Working in a Team Environment
Benefits of Teamwork
Characteristics of an Effective Team
Features Found in a Supportive Workplace
Module 8: Business Relationships

Behaviours for Establishing Effective Relationships with Customers
Module 9: Cultural Awareness

Demonstrate Sensitivity and Respect for Other Cultures
Practice Techniques for Communicating Cross-Culturally
Domain 2: Analyst Skills

Module 10: Communication

Describe Ways People Communicate
Difference Between Formal and Informal Communications
Barriers to Effective Communication
Module 11: Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Skill

Principles of Good Verbal skills
Principles of Good Non-Verbal Communication Skills
Module 12: Listening Skills

Principles of Active Listening
Paraphrasing and its Significance
Advantages of Active Listening
Barriers to listening and Understanding
Module 13: Written Communication

Using Correct Grammar and Spelling is Essential in Documentation and Written Communications
Components Needed for Writing Professional Business Communications and Documentation
Module 14: Questioning Skills

Difference Between Open and Closed Questioning
Structured Questioning Technique
Module 15: Problem Solving

Skills Needed for Effective Problem Solving
Steps in a Typical Problem-Solving Technique
Module 16: Rapport Techniques

Emotional Intelligence
Elements of Emotional Intelligence
Benefits of Emotional Intelligence
Common Customer Emotions or Actions that an Analyst Requires to Manage
Methods for Acknowledging the Customers
Techniques for Dealing with Negative Reactions from Customers
Module 17: Conflict and Negotiation Skills

Signs that Conflict is Developing
Appropriate Actions to Reduce and Eliminate Conflict
Define the Negotiation
Elements of Negotiation
Module 18: Interaction Management Skills

Benefits of Professionally Managing Interactions
Benefits of Using a Standard Greeting
Actions for Managing and Redirecting Issues Related to Unsupported Items
Behaviours and Situations to Avoid When Interacting with Customers
How to Manage an Abusive Customer=>
How to Manage an Angry Customer=>
How to Manage an Inconvenienced Customer=>
How to Manage an Over talkative Customer=>
How to Manage an Emotionally Distressed Customer=>
How to Manage a Customer that is Reluctant to End an Interaction=>
How to Professionally Disengage from a Support Interaction=>
Module 19: Resilience

Importance of Emotional Resilience
Common Causes of Stress
Signs of Positive Stress
Signs of Negative Stress
Describe the responsibility they have to Manage Stress for Ourselves and their Colleagues
Actions that Reduce Stress
Module 20: Time Management

What Multitasking Means in a Support Environment=>
Techniques to Excellerate Time Management
Benefits of Effective Time Management
Module 21: Positive Approach and Attitude

Differences Between Aggressive, Assertive and Passive Behaviour
Importance of Demonstrating Confidence
How Confidence is Demonstrated=>
Module 22: Professional Development

Methods for Enhancing Personal Professional Development
Domain 3: Practices, Processes and Procedures

Module 23: Practices, Processes and Procedures

Practice, Process, and Procedure Management
Importance of Documenting Practices, Processes, and Procedures
Module 24: Incident Management

Purpose of Incident Management
Incident
Objectives of Incident Management
Principal Activities that the Service Desk Analyst Performs in Incident Management
Benefits of Effective Incident Management
Common Measures of Success for Incident Management
Module 25: Service Request Management

Purpose of Service Request Management
Service Request
Objectives of Service Request Management
Common Measures of Success for Service Request Management
Module 26: Recording Incidents and Requests

Primary Reasons for Recording Incidents and Requests
Procedure for, Information Required, to Raise an Incident or Service Request
Determine the Priority of an Incident or Service Request
Steps Required to Resolve an Incident or Service Request
Module 27: Explain the Two Types of Escalation

Two Types of Escalation
Circumstances in which Escalation is Suitable
Module 28: Status Updates

Importance of Status Updates
Information to Provide in a Status Update
Module 29: Problem Management

Purpose of Problem Management
Problem
Reactive and Proactive Problem Management
Objectives of Problem Management
Service Desks Responsibilities in Problem Management:
Three Phases of Problem Management
Primary Activities of Problem Management
Common Measures of Success for Problem Management
Module 30: Change Enablement

Purpose of Change Enablement
Describe a Change
Types of Change
Objectives of Change Enablement
Service Desks Responsibilities in Change Enablement
Activities in Change Enablement
Common Measures of Success for Change Enablement
Module 31: Service Level Management

Purpose of a Service Level Management
Objectives of Service Level Management
Service Level Agreement
Typical Content of a Service Level Agreement that is Relevant to the Service Desk (SLA)
Module 32: Service Catalogue Management

Purpose of Service Catalogue Management
Service Catalogue
Objectives of Service Catalogue Management
Necessary Components of an Entry in the Service Catalogue
Module 33: Service Delivery Model

Different Kinds of Sourcing Methodologies and Models Available for Delivering IT Services
Module 34: Knowledge Management

Purpose Knowledge Management
Objective of Knowledge Management
Why Knowledge Management is Important to the Service Des
Why it is Essential to Maintain Knowledge=>
Common Measures of Success for Knowledge Management
Module 34: Information Security Management

Purpose of Information Security Management
Objective of Information Security Management
Importance of Information Security Policies
Service Desks Responsibilities in Information Security Management
Potential Security Threats to the Organisation that Might Occur through the Service Desk
Types of Security Policies
Importance of Reporting Security Compromises
Importance of Legal Compliance
Importance of Software License Management
Importance of Confidentiality
Module 35: Service Continuity Management

Purpose and Responsibility of the Service Continuity Management
Purpose of a Service Continuity Plan
Components of a Service Continuity Plan
Module 36: Quality Assurance Program

Purpose of a Quality Assurance (QA) Program
Objectives of a Quality Assurance (QA) Program
Common QA Practices used by a Service Desk
Methods for Monitoring Calls and Other Interactions
What is Meant by Incident and Service Request Monitoring
Methods for Monitoring Incidents and Service Requests
Benefits of Interaction, Incident, and Service Request Monitoring
Module 37: Managing Customer Feedback

Purpose Managing Customer Feedback
Objectives of Managing Customer Feedback
Common Sources of Customer Feedback
Components of Managing Customer Feedback
Three Most Common Types of Surveys and the Importance of Each Type
Module 38: Service Desk Metrics and Statistics

Reason for Compiling Service Desk Metrics
Common Service Desk Metrics
Domain 4: Resources

Module 39: Support Methods

Methods Used for Delivering Service and Support
Purpose of Using IT Service Management Systems in a Service Desk Environment
Primary Objectives of Using IT Service Management Tools
Benefits of Remote Support
Common Disadvantages of Using Remote Support Tools
Benefits of Using Live Chat and Collaboration Tools
Commons Risks of Using Live Chat and Collaboration Tools
Describe Automatic Call Distribution (ACD)
Common Automatic Call Distribution (ACD) Features
Module 40: Self-Service

Describe Self-Service
Benefits of Self-Service
Risks of Self-Service
Common Examples of Self-Service
Module 41: Automation

Describe Automation
Examples of Automation
Module 42: Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Describe AI
Common Examples of AI
Benefits of AI
Challenges of AI
Module 43: Social Media



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug