Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : RPFT
Exam Name : Registered Pulmonary Function Technologist
Vendor Name : Medical
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RPFT test Format | RPFT Course Contents | RPFT Course Outline | RPFT test Syllabus | RPFT test Objectives

Test Detail:
The RPFT (Registered Pulmonary Function Technologist) examination is designed to assess the knowledge and skills of individuals seeking certification as pulmonary function technologists. Below is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, test objectives, and test syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The exact number of questions and time allocation for the RPFT examination may vary depending on the certifying organization or board. Typically, the test consists of multiple-choice questions. Candidates are given a specific time limit, usually ranging from 3 to 4 hours, to complete the exam.

Course Outline:
The RPFT certification course typically covers a wide range of courses related to pulmonary function testing and respiratory care. The course outline may include, but is not limited to, the following areas:

1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System:
- Structure and function of the respiratory system.
- Gas exchange mechanisms in the lungs.
- Respiratory mechanics and lung volumes.

2. Pulmonary Function Testing Techniques:
- Spirometry: measurement of lung volumes and capacities.
- Diffusion capacity testing.
- Lung plethysmography and airway resistance measurements.
- Practice testing and bronchial provocation tests.
- Arterial blood gas analysis.

3. Equipment and Instrumentation:
- Principles and operation of spirometers, plethysmographs, and gas analyzers.
- Calibration and quality control of pulmonary function equipment.
- Troubleshooting and maintenance of equipment.

4. Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests:
- Normal and abnormal pulmonary function values.
- Patterns of pulmonary function abnormalities.
- Diagnosis and classification of respiratory disorders based on test results.

5. Patient Assessment and Preparation:
- Patient history taking and physical exam.
- Pre-test instructions and patient preparation for pulmonary function testing.
- Safety considerations during testing.

6. Infection Control and Quality Assurance:
- Infection control practices in the pulmonary function laboratory.
- Quality assurance and quality control measures.
- Compliance with regulatory standards and guidelines.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the RPFT test are to evaluate the candidate's knowledge and competencies in the following areas:

1. Understanding the anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the respiratory system.
2. Performing and interpreting various pulmonary function tests.
3. Operating and maintaining pulmonary function equipment.
4. Assessing and preparing patients for pulmonary function testing.
5. Ensuring infection control and implementing quality assurance measures in the laboratory.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific test syllabus for the RPFT certification may vary depending on the certifying organization or board. It typically covers the following topics:

- Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System
- Pulmonary Function Testing Techniques
- Equipment and Instrumentation
- Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests
- Patient Assessment and Preparation
- Infection Control and Quality Assurance

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Medical Registered Questions and Answers


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Questions and answers from the ‘Car Doctor’

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A. This is quite common on lug-nuts that use an aluminum or chrome cap over the steel lug-net. I have seen these designs used on a variety of vehicles including my own little boat trailer. Rust forms under the cap and causes the lug-nuts to become swollen. When this happens, a standard socket is in some cases impossible to get on the lug-nut. My suggestion would be to replace all the lug-nuts with a one-piece design. You can find one piece lug-nuts online, a custom wheel and tire shop or Dorman corporation that develops repair solutions for just these kinds of problems.

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A. Without inspecting the truck, it is hard to determine the cost of a repair. But if I had to guess. You are probably looking at $2-3000 to repair the rust if sections of the frame can be capped and welded. If the entire frame needs replacement, $10,000 or more and that is if a frame is even available. I would try a welding shop to see if they can patch it or a body shop for a full frame replacement. Regarding is it worth it, if the rest of the truck is outstanding, maybe yes, but if it is a typical Dodge Dakota, with age related mechanical issues and body rust, this may be a case of throwing good money after bad.

Q. My 1988 Lincoln Town Car, door lock control will not open back door locks, also the ventilation fan does not work and lastly there is a gas smell. I replaced all the gas lines and the gas tank. The car has only 68,000 miles on it and needs bodywork. What should I do?

A. Well, it sounds like age is certainly affecting your 35-year-old car much more than mileage. The gas smell could be an over saturated evaporative emissions canister or a leaking throttle body (part of the fuel system) or fuel pump. The window issue could be wiring, or the master control switch and the fan could be a faulty fan, fuse, wiring or the switch. At this point if it were my car, even with the low mileage I would take it to a trusted shop and spend an hour or two worth of labor and have an overall evaluation of the car to see what else is going on. If the gas lines rusted out, it is possible the brake lines and transmission lines are also very rusty and even the frame could be starting to rot away. It may be time to let your Town Car go.

Q. My 2008 Suzuki XL7 has nearly 200,000 miles but runs great. The issues are the check engine light is on, the RPMs dip and vary. I am thinking of a good tune up and maybe the timing belt could be changed? The car resides and is registered in Florida, so I am not concerned with state inspection, but would like the car to run properly and be safe. Where should I bring it for repairs?

A. The engine in the Suzuki XL7 uses a chain not a belt, not saying it could not be worn, but it is not normal maintenance. If the timing chain does need replacement, it is expensive, taking nearly 12 hours labor to complete. The idle speed variation could be worn plugs, lazy oxygen sensor or a vacuum leak. If you need a garage in Florida or anywhere, go to aaa.com/repair to find a local AAA Approved Auto Repair shop near you.

Got a car question, email the Car Doctor for a personal reply. jpaul@aaanortheast.com

Frequently Asked Questions

The MFR/EMR provides immediate lifesaving care to patients who have accessed the EMS system. The MFR/EMR is usually the first on scene and will wait for a higher-level EMS practitioner to arrive and take over care. The MFR/EMR takes patient vital signs; utilizes basic airway, ventilation, and oxygen therapy devices; and provides stabilization of the spine and suspected extremity injuries. The MFR/EMR is also trained in eye irrigation, bleeding control, emergency moves, CPR, automated external defibrillation, and emergency childbirth care. This level of certification requires 40 hours of training.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug