Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : RTRP
Exam Name : Registered Tax Return Preparer
Vendor Name : IRS
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RTRP test Format | RTRP Course Contents | RTRP Course Outline | RTRP test Syllabus | RTRP test Objectives


The Registered Tax Return Preparer Test (RTRP) focuses on the ethical
responsibilities of federal tax return preparers and the completion of the Form 1040
series returns including basic related schedules and forms. The test specifications
below are intended to provide guidance on the content of the RTRP test. The
examples provided within each item are not all inclusive of what may be tested in a
given area. All efforts have been made to develop Questions Answers based on
general tax rules covered in IRS publications, forms and instructions rather than
exceptions found only in the Internal Revenue Code or Income Tax Regulations.



Domain 1 – Preliminary Work and Collection of Taxpayer Data

1. Review prior years return for accuracy, comparison, and carryovers for current year return.

2. Collect taxpayers biographical information (e.g., date of birth, age, marital status, citizenship, dependents).

3. Determine filing status.

4. Determine all sources of taxable and non-taxable income (e.g., wages, interest, business, sale of property, dividends, rental income, income from flow-through
entities, alimony, government payments, and pension distributions).

5. Determine applicable adjustments to gross income (e.g., self-employed health
insurance, self-employment tax, student loan interest deduction, alimony paid,
tuition, and fees deduction).

6. Determine standard deduction and Schedule A itemized deductions (e.g., state and
local tax, real estate tax, cash contributions, non-cash contributions, unreimbursed
employee expense, medical expense, and mortgage interest).

7. Determine applicable credits (e.g., Earned Income Tax Credit, child tax credit,
education, retirement savings, dependent and childcare credit).

8. Understand tax payments (e.g., withholding, estimated payments).

9. Recognize items that will affect future returns (e.g., carryovers, depreciation).

10. Determine special filing requirements (e.g., presidentially declared disaster areas).

11. Determine filing requirements (including extensions and amended returns).

12. Understand due dates, including extensions.

13. Determine personal exemptions, including dependents.

14. Determine qualifying child/relative tests for Earned Income Credit.



Domain 2 – Treatment of Income and Assets

A. Income

1. Taxability of wages, salaries, tips, and other earnings (e.g., W-2 Wage and Tax Statement, cash).

2. Interest income (taxable and non-taxable) (e.g., Schedule B and 1099-INT).

3. Dividend income (e.g., Schedule B and 1099-DIV).

4. Self-employment income and expenses (e.g., Schedule C Profit or Loss From Business and Form 1099-MISC Miscellaneous Income, cash).

5. Rental income and expenses (e.g., Schedule E Supplemental Income and Loss).

6. Identification of forgiveness of debt as income (including Form 1099-C Cancellation of Debt).

7. Other income (e.g., alimony, barter income, hobby income, non-taxable combat pay, state income tax refund from prior years, prizes).

B. Retirement income

1. Reporting requirements of Social Security benefits (e.g., Form SSA-1099 Social Security Benefit Statement).

2. Taxable distribution from an IRA including basis in an IRA (e.g., Form 8606 Non-deductible IRAs).

3. Distributions from qualified plans (e.g., 401k, IRA, Roth IRA).

4. Required minimum distributions from retirement plans.

C. Property, real and personal

1. Short-term and long-term capital gains and losses (e.g., Schedule D Capital
Gains and Losses, Form 1099-B Proceeds from Broker and Barter Exchange
Transactions).

2. Determination of basis of assets (e.g., purchased, gifted, or inherited).

3. Sale of non-business assets (gains or losses).

4. Sale of a principal residence (e.g., IRC 121 exclusions, 1099S Proceeds From
Real Estate Transactions).

D. Adjustments to income

1. Self-employment tax (e.g., Schedule SE Self-Employment Tax).

2. Tuition and fees (e.g., Form 8917 Tuition and Fees Deduction, Form 1098T
Tuition Statement).

3. Eligible Moving expenses (e.g., Form 3903 Moving Expenses).

4. Other adjustments to income (e.g., IRA contribution deduction).



Domain 3 – Deductions and Credits

A. Itemized deductions

1. Medical and dental expenses.

2. State, local, and real estate taxes.

3. Mortgage interest expense (e.g., Form 1098 Mortgage Interest Statement).

4. Charitable contributions (e.g., cash, non-cash, Form 8283 Non-Cash Charitable
Contributions).

5. Miscellaneous itemized deductions (including deductions subject to 2% AGI
Limit).

6. Employee travel, transportation, education, and entertainment expenses (e.g.,
Form 2106-EZ and Form 2106 Unreimbursed Employee Business Expenses).

B. Credits

1. Child and dependent care credit (e.g., Form 2441 Child and Dependent Care
Expenses).

2. Child Tax Credit and Additional Child Tax Credit (e.g., Form 8812,
Additional Child Tax Credit).

3. Education credits (e.g., Form 8863 Education Credits (American Opportunity
and Lifetime Learning Credits), Form 1098T Tuition Statement).

4. Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) (e.g., Schedule EIC Earned Income Credit,
Form 8867 Paid Preparers Earned Income Credit Checklist).

5. Retirement savings contribution credit (e.g., Form 8880 Credit for Qualified
Retirement Savings Contributions).



Domain 4 – Other Taxes

1. Alternative Minimum Tax (e.g., Form 6251 Alternative Minimum Tax).

2. Early distributions from retirement plans (e.g., Form 5329 Additional Tax on
Qualified Plans).

3. Self-employment tax (e.g., Schedule SE Self-Employment Tax).

4. Unreported Social Security and Medicare tax (e.g., Form 4137 Social Security and
Medicare Tax on Unreported Tip Income).

5. Repayment of first-time homebuyer credit (including Form 5405 First-Time
Homebuyer Credit and Repayment of the Credit).



Domain 5 – Completion of the Filing Process

1. Check return for completeness and accuracy.

2. Explain and review tax return.

3. Explain record-keeping requirements to the taxpayer.

4. Discuss significance of signatures (e.g., joint and several liability, penalty of
perjury, Form 8879 IRS e-file Signature Authorization).

5. Understand tax preparer's responsibilities related to rejected electronic returns.

6. Understand timeframe for submitting electronic returns (e.g., Form 8879 taxpayer
signature and date prior to submission).

7. Understand payment options (e.g., check, direct debit, EFTPS, credit card,
installment agreement-Form 9465).

8. Understand estimated tax payment requirements (e.g., potential for penalties,
Form 1040-ES Estimated Tax).

9. Understand refund options (e.g., Form 8888 Allocation of Refund).



Domain 6 – Practices and Procedures

1. Penalties to be assessed by the IRS against a preparer for negligent or intentional
disregard of rules and regulations, and for a willful understatement of liability
(e.g., IRC 6694(a), IRC 6694(b)).

2. Appropriate use of Form 8867 Paid Preparers Earned Income Credit Checklist and
related penalty for failure to exercise due diligence (e.g., IRC 6695(g)).

3. Furnishing a copy of a return to a taxpayer (e.g., IRC 6695(a)).

4. Signing returns and furnishing identifying (PTIN) numbers (e.g., IRC 6695(b),
IRC 6695(c)).

5. Rules for the return preparer for keeping copies and/or lists of returns prepared
(e.g., IRC 6695(d)).

6. Compliance with e-file procedures (e.g., timing of taxpayer signature, timing of
filing, recordkeeping, prohibited filing with pay stub).

7. Completion and use of Form 2848 Power of Attorney and Declaration of
Representative and Form 8821 Tax Information Authorization.

8. Safeguarding taxpayer information (e.g., Publication 4600 Safeguarding Taxpayer
Information, Quick Reference Guide for Business, IRC 7216).



Domain 7 – Ethics

Circular 230 Subparts A, B, and C (excluding D, E), covering syllabus including, but not
limited to, the following:

1. Preparers due diligence for accuracy of representations made to clients and IRS;
reliance on third-party work products (Circular 230, section 10.22).

2. What constitutes practice before the IRS and categories of individuals who may
practice (Circular 230, sections 10.2(a)(4) and 10.3).

3. Limits on practice by a registered tax return preparer (Circular 230, section
10.3(f)).

4. Requirement to furnish information to IRS upon request (Circular 230, section
10.20).

5. Prompt disposition of matters before the IRS (Circular 230, section 10.23).

6. Prohibition on receiving assistance from or providing assistance to disciplined
practitioners (Circular 230, section 10.24).

7. Rules regarding fees, including contingent fees (Circular 230, section 10.27).

8. Rules in dealing with clients, including return of client records, conflicts of interest,
advising on omissions and errors, solicitation (including advertising), and
negotiation of taxpayer refund checks (Circular 230, sections 10.21, 10.28, 10.29,
10.30, and 10.31).

9. Due diligence standards with respect to tax returns and other documents;
standards for signing, advising positions on returns and advising submissions of
other documents; advising on penalties; good faith reliance on client information;
reasonable questions regarding incomplete, inconsistent, incorrect information
(Circular 230, sections 10.34 and 10.35).

10. Responsibility of individual(s) who have principal authority over a firms tax
practices (Circular 230, section 10.36).

11. Incompetence and disreputable conduct that can result in disciplinary proceedings
(Circular 230, sections 10.51 and 10.52).

12. Sanctions that may be imposed under Circular 230 (Circular 230, sections 10.50
and 10.60).




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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug