Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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SOA S90.02A : SOA Technology Concepts ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : S90.02A
Exam Name : SOA Technology Concepts
Vendor Name : SOA
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S90.02A test Format | S90.02A Course Contents | S90.02A Course Outline | S90.02A test Syllabus | S90.02A test Objectives

Exam: S90.02A SOA Technology Concepts

Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The test consists of approximately 40 multiple-choice questions.
- Time: Candidates are given 60 minutes to complete the exam.

Course Outline:
The S90.02A SOA Technology Concepts test focuses on assessing professionals' knowledge of the technical aspects and technologies related to Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). The course covers the following topics:

1. Web Services Fundamentals
- XML and JSON basics
- SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)
- WSDL (Web Services Description Language)
- REST (Representational State Transfer)

2. Service-Oriented Integration
- Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)
- Message-oriented middleware
- Service-oriented integration patterns
- Data transformation and mediation

3. Service Composition and Orchestration
- BPEL (Business Process Execution Language)
- WS-BPEL (Web Services Business Process Execution Language)
- Service choreography
- Orchestration engines and tools

4. Service Security and Transactions
- WS-Security (Web Services Security)
- WS-Trust and WS-Policy
- Identity and access management
- Transaction management in SOA

Exam Objectives:
The test aims to assess candidates' understanding and proficiency in the following areas:

1. Web services fundamentals and protocols
2. Service-oriented integration technologies and patterns
3. Service composition and orchestration concepts
4. Service security and transaction management in SOA

Exam Syllabus:
The test syllabus covers the following topics:

- Web Services Fundamentals
- XML and JSON basics
- SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)
- WSDL (Web Services Description Language)
- REST (Representational State Transfer)

- Service-Oriented Integration
- Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)
- Message-oriented middleware
- Service-oriented integration patterns
- Data transformation and mediation

- Service Composition and Orchestration
- BPEL (Business Process Execution Language)
- WS-BPEL (Web Services Business Process Execution Language)
- Service choreography
- Orchestration engines and tools

- Service Security and Transactions
- WS-Security (Web Services Security)
- WS-Trust and WS-Policy
- Identity and access management
- Transaction management in SOA

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Minors and Certificates

Minor in Mathematical Sciences

The Department offers a minor in mathematical sciences. To be awarded a minor, a student must meet both the department’s and the University’s requirements for the minor:

Many students only need to take 6 credits beyond what their major program requires.

Minor in Statistics

The department offers a Minor in Statistics that provides students the opportunity to develop a working knowledge of modern statistical techniques. Such knowledge will materially help scientists, engineers, and other professionals in their careers and will make graduating students more attractive on the job market.

Statistical analysis has long been essential in many areas of applied science and engineering—for example, in clinical trials of pharmaceuticals and quality control.

Unprecedented amounts of data are being recorded in many areas, from traditional to new applications, and the ability to understand statistical analyses is now beneficial in a broad range of careers.


The minor requires introductory courses in statistics and probability, training in statistical computing, and three courses (to be chosen from a defined list) on advanced statistical techniques.

Consult the departmental and University requirements for earning a minor:


A certificate is a program of courses that provides a student with knowledge of a disciplinary or interdisciplinary subfield. Departments may offer certificates to both degree-seeking and non-degree-seeking students.

Certificate in Actuarial Science

The Department of Mathematical Sciences offers a Certificate in Actuarial Science, which can be earned by a student in any major. This certificate prepares students for the first actuarial exams offered by the Society of Actuaries (SOA), which are required for professional certification as an actuary.

The Certificate in Actuarial Science requires 24 credits of course work that will prepare students for the first two SOA exams (P and FM) and give them a good start in preparing for exams MLC, MFE, and C. Students hoping to enter the actuarial profession upon graduation should take and pass the P and FM exams during their undergraduate study.

Certificate in Business Analytics

The Department of Mathematical Sciences offers a Certificate in Business Analytics, which can be earned by a student in any major. This certificate provides a foundation in the emerging field of analytics, the use of statistics and mathematical modeling to optimize business performance.

The Certificate in Business Analytics requires 24 credits of course work.

Actuarial Courses

/ Mathematics and Statistics Department

Hope College offers a sequence of courses designed for pre-actuary preparation.

Actuarial science is a field of study that uses mathematical models to put a present dollar value on future risky events. Historically, most actuaries have worked in the insurance and pensions industries. Today, actuaries are also involved in financial decision making for both individuals and companies.

The Jobs Rated Almanac has annually rated actuary as one of the top professions based on work environment, income, outlook, job security, stress and other factors. In particular, the actuarial profession is often called the “zero-unemployment” profession because the demand for actuaries has typically outpaced supply. Visit beanactuary.org for more information about the actuarial profession.

Who becomes an actuary

Actuaries are people who have very strong quantitative abilities, enjoy working in the business world, and who want to start their careers immediately after they attain their undergraduate degree (no post-graduate degree required). Again, visit beanactuary.org for more information.

What they offer

The Hope College Department of Mathematics and Statistics offers:

  • Actuarial test preparation courses
  • Internship opportunities
  • All of the Society of Actuaries certified Validation by Educational Experience (VEE) courses
  • Funding opportunities for test costs and study materials
  • Recommendations

    Students must have passed the first of a series of certification exams before graduating in order to be competitive for jobs after graduation. Additionally, students who have completed Society of Actuaries certified Validation by Educational Experience (VEE) college courses, have had an internship in the actuarial field, and/or have completed subsequent actuarial certification exams are even more competitive for actuarial positions upon graduation.

    Recommended Courses

    The following courses are strongly recommended for students intending to become actuaries:

  • Math 365: Introduction to Probability
  • Math 366: Probability for Actuaries
  • Econ 211/212: Macroeconomics and Microeconomics
  • Bus 371: Financial Management
  • Econ 306: Econometrics
  • The last three courses listed above also satisfy the Society of Actuaries "Validation by Educational Experiences" certification.

    The following courses are also recommended:

  • Math 311/312: Statistics
  • Math 231/232: Multivariable Mathematics 1 & 2
  • Math 362: Mathematical Statistics
  • Download a brochure about Pre-Actuary Preparation at Hope College. For more details on the actuarial profession (a profession consistently rated as one of the best), visit www.beanactuary.org.

    First Exam Students should take Introduction to Probability (Math 365) and Probability for Actuaries (Math 366) after taking at least the first two semesters of calculus. At the end of Math 366, students are ready to take the first actuarial certification examination. VEE Courses Through the Department of Economics, Management and Accounting, they offer all of the Society of Actuaries VEE courses. These include Macroeconomics (Econ 211), Microeconomics (Econ 212), Financial Management (Bus 371), and Econometrics (Econ 306). Internships The Career Services Office offers connections to summer internships with firms in Grand Rapids, Chicago, Detroit and beyond. Students may also obtain semester long internships as part of the Chicago or Philadelphia semester programs. Students that pass their first test will be competitive for most summer internships. Preparation for Subsequent Exams The Hope College Mathematics and Statistics Department offers independent study opportunities for students who have completed their first test and are preparing for the second, third or fourth exams. Further Mathematics Study While not required, pre-actuary students should also plan to take courses in applied statistics (Math 311/312), multivariable calculus (Math 231/232), and mathematical statistics (Math 362). Funding The Department of Mathematics and Statistics offers competitive awards to cover the cost of test registration and study materials.

    Actuarial Mathematics for Life Contingent Risks

    The substantially updated third edition of the popular Actuarial Mathematics for Life Contingent Risks is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of actuarial science, for trainee actuaries preparing for professional actuarial examinations, and for life insurance practitioners who wish to increase or update their technical knowledge. The authors provide intuitive explanations alongside mathematical theory, equipping readers to understand the material in sufficient depth to apply it in real-world situations and to adapt their results in a changing insurance environment. courses include modern actuarial paradigms, such as multiple state models, cash-flow projection methods and option theory, all of which are required for managing the increasingly complex range of contemporary long-term insurance products. Numerous exam-style questions allow readers to prepare for traditional professional actuarial exams, and extensive use of Excel ensures that readers are ready for modern, Excel-based exams and for the actuarial work environment. The Solutions Manual (ISBN 9781108747615), available for separate purchase, provides detailed solutions to the text's exercises.

    'Some decades ago, Life Contingencies were viewed as the boring part of actuarial mathematics. The third (substantially enlarged) edition of this classic is proof of how wrong that view was. Some of the most exciting developments of their field are taking place here. The authors are to be congratulated on having made the latter abundantly clear. This surely is my desert island book on the topic!' Paul Embrechts, Emeritus Professor of Insurance Mathematics, ETH Zurich

    Review of the second edition: 'This book is an excellent textbook for undergraduate, master's level graduate students, and practitioners. It is easy to read, clearly written, and mathematically rigorous. The authors clearly emphasize important concepts and equations, helping readers to the see the forest from the trees. For example they box important formulas and present in bold type assumptions, formulas, statements, examples, and solutions. Many graphs, figures and tables compete a useful summary for the reader's convenience.' Kissop Lee, The American Statistician

    Review of the second edition: 'The book is well written and the content is generally quite accessible … The content focuses on examples of practical actuarial work through use of spreadsheets … Overall, the book provides a good framework in life insurance contingencies so as to cover mortality, longevity interest rate modeling, pricing and guarantees. The strength of the book lies in the fact that this is the 2nd edition and reflects modern actuarial methods that have become popular since the last edition was published.' Gautam Kakar, Annals of Actuarial Science

    Review of the first edition: 'The book is well written, well organized, and easy to read. It may be an excellent textbook for both undergraduate and graduate programs in actuarial science. It is also a rich source of useful information for practitioners of the actuarial profession and financial risk managers who seek a practical and inspiring guide to liability cash flow modeling and valuation.' Scandinavian Actuarial Journal


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug