Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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SOA S90.19A : Advanced SOA Security exam Dumps

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Exam Number : S90.19A
Exam Name : Advanced SOA Security
Vendor Name : SOA
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S90.19A exam Format | S90.19A Course Contents | S90.19A Course Outline | S90.19A exam Syllabus | S90.19A exam Objectives

Exam: S90.19A Advanced SOA Security

Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The exam consists of approximately 40 multiple-choice questions.
- Time: Candidates are given 90 minutes to complete the exam.

Course Outline:
The S90.19A Advanced SOA Security exam focuses on assessing professionals' advanced knowledge and skills in securing Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) environments. The course covers the following topics:

1. Advanced Concepts in SOA Security
- Threat modeling and risk exam in SOA
- Security architecture and design patterns
- Advanced authentication and authorization mechanisms
- Data protection and privacy in SOA

2. Securing Service Interactions
- Secure service composition and orchestration
- Message-level security and encryption
- Handling security policies and assertions
- Secure service discovery and registry

3. Securing Service Infrastructure
- Securing SOA gateways and intermediaries
- Implementing identity and access management
- Secure deployment and configuration management
- Securing service virtualization and cloud-based environments

4. Advanced Security Governance and Compliance
- SOA security governance frameworks
- Security testing and vulnerability management
- Compliance with industry regulations and standards
- Incident response and security incident management

Exam Objectives:
The exam aims to assess candidates' proficiency and expertise in the following areas:

1. Advanced concepts and principles of SOA security.
2. In-depth understanding of securing service interactions.
3. Proficiency in securing service infrastructure.
4. Knowledge of advanced security governance and compliance in SOA.

Exam Syllabus:
The exam syllabus covers the following topics:

- Advanced Concepts in SOA Security
- Threat modeling and risk exam in SOA
- Security architecture and design patterns
- Advanced authentication and authorization mechanisms
- Data protection and privacy in SOA

- Securing Service Interactions
- Secure service composition and orchestration
- Message-level security and encryption
- Handling security policies and assertions
- Secure service discovery and registry

- Securing Service Infrastructure
- Securing SOA gateways and intermediaries
- Implementing identity and access management
- Secure deployment and configuration management
- Securing service virtualization and cloud-based environments

- Advanced Security Governance and Compliance
- SOA security governance frameworks
- Security testing and vulnerability management
- Compliance with industry regulations and standards
- Incident response and security incident management

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SOA Security techniques


Tag: tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs)

SAN FRANCISCO – Picus Security has used its pioneering Breach and Attack Simulation (BAS) technology to run over 14 million simulated attacks, and in a published report has noted four “impossible tradeoffs” for security teams. According to the analysis performed by Picus Security, only 6 out of every 10 cyber attacks are prevented statistically by organizations. Trying to shore up defenses against these kinds of attacks put cybersecurity teams in a situation where they must...

Black Hat, Breach and Attack Simulation (BAS), continuous threat exposure management (CTEM), Cybersecurity, Picus Security, Security, Suleyman Ozarslan, tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs)

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Identity-based security threats are growing rapidly: report

Cybercriminals are increasingly using compromise methods that grant “legitimate” access to target systems, making them harder to detect.

The most dangerous cybersecurity threat of the moment is an attacker with access to legitimate identity information for a given system, according to a report issued today by endpoint security and threat intelligence vendor CrowdStrike.

According to the report, interactive intrusions (which the company defines as those in which an attacker is working actively to accomplish some illicit end on a victim's system), are increasingly implemented using strategies that involve compromised identity information for access to a target. During the past year, both government-backed and organized crime hacking groups have raised their game with improved phishing techniques and social engineering "tradecraft."

"The biggest trend that we've seen is that everything is moving towards identity," said Adam Meyers, head of intelligence at CrowdStrike. "80% of attacks involved identity and compromised credentials."

Those credentials can be compromised in the traditional way, using email phishing and social engineering, or they can be purchased on the dark web, sourced from other types of compromised systems. Once they have access to a target system, cybercriminals use a range of techniques to achieve their ends, and the report said that the use of remote monitoring and management software is sharply on the rise.

"Threat actors understand that there are security tools out there that impede the way they operate," noted Meyers. "So they're trying to use techniques that don't trigger that security." Compromised login IDs are hard to detect, and must generally be discovered by monitoring for unusual account behavior.

A move away from what he described as a "Microsoft monoculture" in the enterprise would be a positive step toward stemming the current flow of identity based attacks, Meyers said.

"Organizations have gone all in with Microsoft, they have good OSes and productivity suites, but a history of poor security," Meyers said.

In particular, Kerberos-based attacks against Windows systems have been on the rise, according to CrowdStrike. The technique of "Kerberoasting" (compromising a Kerberos ticket by cracking its encryption offline) has been particularly successful of late, since Windows uses Kerberos as a key authentication method.

The report also includes information about the growing cloud-based threat posed by the use of privilege escalation tools like LinPEAS, which can be used to enumerate information about a cloud environment, including metadata, network attributes and even security credentials, depending on the service provider and its configuration. CrowdStrike recommends applying on-premises security techniques to all cloud workload instances, including restricting outbound connections from those instances to whitelisted addresses.

Lapsus$ hackers took SIM-swapping attacks to the next level

Lapsus$ hackers paid telco employee $20,000 per week for SIM-swaps

The U.S. government released a report after analyzing simple techniques, e.g. SIM swapping, used by the Lapsus$ extortion group to breach dozens of organizations with a strong security posture.

Reviewing the group’s operations started in December last year following a long trail of incidents attributed to or claimed by Lapsus$ after leaking proprietary data from alleged victims.

Among high-profile companies impacted by Lapsus$ are Microsoft, Cisco, Okta, Nvidia, T-Mobile, Samsung, Uber, Vodafone, Ubisoft, and Globant.

Lapsus$ is described as a loosely-organized group formed mainly of teenagers, with members in the U.K. and Brazil that acted between 2021 and 2022 for notoriety, financial gain, or for fun. However, they also combined techniques of various complexity with “flashes of creativity.”

SIM-swap power

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cyber Safety Review Board (CSRB) finalized its analysis and describes the group’s tactics and techniques in a report that also includes recommendations for the industry.

“Lapsus$ employed low-cost techniques, well-known and available to other threat actors, revealing weak points in their cyber infrastructure that could be vulnerable to future attacks” - Department of Homeland Security Cyber Safety Review Board.

The group used SIM swapping to gain access to a target company’s internal network and steal confidential information like source code, details about proprietary technology, or business and customer-related documents.

In a SIM-swapping attack, the threat actor steals the victim’s phone number by porting it to a SIM card owned by the attacker. The trick relies on social engineering or an insider at the victim’s mobile carrier.

With control over the victim’s phone number, the attacker can receive SMS-based ephemeral codes for two-factor authentication (2FA) required to log into various enterprise services or breach corporate networks.

Going to the source

In the case of Lapsus$, some of the fraudulent SIM swaps were performed straight from the telecommunications provider’s customer management tools after hijacking accounts belonging to employees and contractors.

To obtain confidential information about their victim (name, phone number, customer proprietary network information), members of the group sometimes used fraudulent emergency disclosure requests (EDRs).

An attacker can create a fake EDR by impersonating a legitimate requestor, such as a law enforcement agent, or by applying official logos to the request.

Lapsus$ also relied on insiders at targeted companies, employees, or contractors, to obtain credentials, approve multi-factor authentication (MFA) requests, or use internal access to help the threat actor.

“After executing the fraudulent SIM swaps, Lapsus$ took over online accounts via sign-in and account recovery workflows that sent one-time links or MFA passcodes via SMS or voice calls” - Department of Homeland Security Cyber Safety Review Board.

In one case, Lapsus$ used their unauthorized access to a telco provider to try to compromise mobile phone accounts connected to FBI and Department of Defense personnel.

The attempt was unsuccessful due to extra security implemented for those accounts.

Making and spending money

During the research, CSRB’s findings, the group paid as much as $20,000 per week to access a telecommunications provider’s platform and perform SIM swaps.

Although the FBI was not aware of Lapsus$ selling the data they stole or found evidence of victims paying ransoms to the group, CSRB says that some security experts “observed Lapsus$ extorting organizations with some paying ransoms.”

According to CSRB’s findings the group also exploited unpatched vulnerabilities in Microsoft Active Directory to increase their privileges on the victim network.

It is estimated that Lapsus$ leveraged Active Directory security issues in up to 60% of their attacks, showing that members of the group had the technical skills to move inside a network.

Hitting the brakes

While Lapsus$ was characterized by effectiveness, speed, creativity, and boldness, the group was not always successful in its attacks. It failed in environments that implemented application or token-based multi-factor authentication (MFA).

Also, robust network intrusion detection systems and flagging suspicious account activity prevented Lapsus$ attacks. Where incident response procedures were followed, the impact was “significantly mitigated,” CSRB says in the report.

Despite security researchers and experts decrying for years the use of SMS-based authentication as insecure, DHS’ Cyber Safety Review Board highlights that “most organizations were not prepared to prevent” the attacks from Lapsus$ or other groups employing similar tactics.

The Board’s recommendations to prevent other actors from gaining unauthorized access to an internal network include:

  • transitioning to a passwordless environment with secure identity and access management solutions and discarding SMS as a two-step authentication method
  • prioritizing efforts to reduce the efficiency of social engineering through robust authentication capabilities that are resilient to MFA phishing
  • telco providers should treat SIM swaps as highly privileged actions that require strong identity verification, and provide account-locking options for consumers
  • strengthen Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) oversight and enforcement activities
  • planning for disruptive cyberattacks and investing in prevention, response, and recovery; adopting a zero-trust model and strengthening authentication practices
  • building resilience against social engineering attacks when it comes Emergency Disclosure (Data) Requests
  • organizations should increase cooperation with law enforcement by reporting incidents promptly; the U.S. Government “clear, consistent guidance about its cyber incident-related roles and responsibilities”
  • Lapsus$ fell silent since September 2022, likely due to law enforcement investigations that led to the arrests of several members of the group.

    In March last year, the City of London Police announced the arrest of seven individuals linked to Lapsus$. A few days later, on April 1, two more were apprehended, a 16-year-old and a 17-year-old.

    In October, during Operation Dark Cloud, the Brazilian Federal Police arrested an individual suspected to be part of the Lapsus$ extortion group, for breaching the systems of the country’s Ministry of Health.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug