Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test)The SAT is wholly owned, developed, and published by the College Board, a private, not-for-profit organization in the United States. It is administered on behalf of the College Board by the Educational Testing Service,[rx] which until recently developed the SAT as well.[rx] The test is intended to assess students readiness for college. The SAT was originally designed not to be aligned with high school curricula,[rx] but several adjustments were made for the version of the SAT introduced in 2016, and College Board president, David Coleman, has said that he also wanted to make the test reflect more closely what students learn in high school with the new Common Core standards.[rx]

It is a standardized test administered by the College Board and is required to be taken by students seeking admission to undergraduate schools. The full form of SAT is the Scholastic Assessment Test, which was earlier known as the Scholastic Aptitude Test. SAT test has been developed to evaluate the written, verbal and mathematical skills of the candidates. Applicants aspire to pursue undergraduate courses, particularly in the US and Canada, are required to take the SAT exam. If the student is looking to get admission to a particular course, s/he can take the SAT subject tests to show his knowledge and understanding of that particular subject. Subject tests are offered in areas like Literature, History, Mathematics, Sciences and Foreign Languages.

Conducted by the College Board, SAT 1 or more commonly referred to as the Scholastic Assessment Test is required to be taken by students seeking admission to undergraduate schools. SAT 1 is a general test that has been developed to evaluate the written, verbal and mathematical skills of the candidates. SAT 2, on the other hand, is a more subject-focused test. Students looking to get admission to a particular course are required to take the SAT Subject Test to demonstrate their knowledge of that particular subject. So, whenever, you are in a dilemma while thinking about SAT1 vs SAT2, then just see which SAT 2020 test is apt for you.

Most of the colleges in the US accept either SAT or American College Testing (ACT) for admissions to their undergraduate programs, so, students looking to get into these courses are required to take these tests. However, it is important to know which test you should take. Firstly, check the requirement of the college you are applying to whether they require the SAT or ACT, then decide on which test you should go for. If you are lucky enough to have both the options acceptable from your choice of college.

There are no specific eligibility criteria set by the College Board, the body that conducts and manages the SAT exam. However, it can be taken by students who are in high school. Students who want to apply for undergraduate studies abroad are required to have successfully completed their high school education to move to the next level of their learning.

The test is divided into two sections – Math Test–Calculator and Math Test–No Calculator.

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National Testing Agency Nta

  • India News | Press Trust of India | Thursday July 20, 2023

    The results of Common University Entrance Test (CUET) for admission to postgraduate programmes in more than 190 universities were announced on Thursday, according to the National Testing Agency (NTA).

  • Education | Edited by Ritu Singh | Thursday July 20, 2023

    CUET PG 2023: Candidates can obtain the answer key by visiting the CUET PG official website at cuet.nta.nic.in.

  • Education | Press Trust of India | Tuesday June 13, 2023

    The results of the medical entrance NEET-UG 2023 has been declared, the National Testing Agency (NTA) said.

  • India News | Edited by NDTV News Desk | Tuesday June 13, 2023

    The National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (Undergraduate) 2023 result and final answer key are likely to be released by the National Testing Agency (NTA), today, June 13.

  • Education | Edited by NDTV News Desk | Sunday June 11, 2023

    The National Testing Agency (NTA) has rolled out the admit cards for Phase 1 of UGC NET 2023 examination.

  • India News | Press Trust of India | Friday May 26, 2023

    Medical entrance test NEET-UG which was postponed in Manipur in view of the law-and-order situation will now be conducted on any date between June 3 to 5, National Testing Agency (NTA) announced today.

  • Education | Press Trust of India | Friday May 19, 2023

    The common undergraduate entrance test CUET has been deferred to May 29 in Manipur in view of the law and order situation, UGC Chairman M Jagadesh Kumar said on Friday.

  • Education | Press Trust of India | Wednesday May 17, 2023

    The CUET-UG examination days will be extended by at least four days to accommodate the higher number of candidates in certain cities, according to the National Testing Agency (NTA).

  • India News | Edited by Akhil Kumar | Wednesday May 10, 2023

    The National Testing Agency (NTA), which conducts the NEET exam, is probing the matter after receiving complaints. There has been no official statement so far.

  • India News | Asian News International | Sunday May 7, 2023

    NEET test Postponed 2023: The National Testing Agency (NTA) on Saturday decided to postpone the NEET (UG) examinations to be held in centres in violence-hit Manipur on Sunday till a later date.

  • Education | Edited by Ritu Singh | Saturday May 6, 2023

    The duration of the test is three hours and twenty minutes in which candidates have to attempt 180 questions that carry 720 marks in total.

  • India News | Press Trust of India | Saturday April 29, 2023

    Forty-three candidates havescored full marksin the second edition of the engineering entrance test JEE-Main, according to the National Testing Agency.

  • Education | Edited by NDTV News Desk | Saturday April 29, 2023

    The Joint Entrance test Main (JEE Main) 2023 session 2 result has been declared today. The National Testing Agency (NTA) published the results on the official website - jeemain.nta.nic.in. Candidates can check their score and rank in the entra

  • Education | Press Trust of India | Thursday April 20, 2023

    The Common University Entrance Test-PG for admission to postgraduate programmes in universities across the country will be conducted from June 5-12, the National Testing Agency (NTA) announced today.

  • Education | Edited by Amit Chaturvedi | Wednesday April 5, 2023

    The NTA had released the admit card for the test on Monday (April 3) and the candidates can obtain it from the official website.

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug