Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : SC-300
Exam Name : Microsoft Identity and Access Administrator
Vendor Name : Microsoft
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SC-300 exam Format | SC-300 Course Contents | SC-300 Course Outline | SC-300 exam Syllabus | SC-300 exam Objectives

Test Detail:
The Microsoft SC-300 exam, also known as the Microsoft Identity and Access Administrator exam, is a certification exam that validates an individual's knowledge and skills in managing identity and access solutions in Microsoft Azure and Microsoft 365 environments. This certification is designed for professionals who work with identity and access management technologies and want to demonstrate their expertise in implementing secure access controls.

Course Outline:
The Microsoft Identity and Access Administrator course provides participants with a comprehensive understanding of identity and access management solutions in Microsoft Azure and Microsoft 365. The following is a general outline of the key areas covered in the certification program:

1. Identity and Access Management Fundamentals:
- Understanding identity and access management concepts and best practices.
- Exploring the role of identity providers, authentication, and authorization.
- Understanding the security principles and controls for managing access.

2. Microsoft Azure Active Directory:
- Managing user identities in Azure Active Directory (Azure AD).
- Configuring Azure AD authentication methods and policies.
- Implementing Azure AD self-service password reset and multi-factor authentication.
- Integrating Azure AD with other cloud and on-premises applications.

3. Identity Governance and Privileged Identity Management:
- Designing and implementing identity governance strategies.
- Managing access reviews and entitlements in Azure AD.
- Implementing privileged identity management controls and workflows.
- Monitoring and auditing identity-related activities.

4. Conditional Access and Azure AD Identity Protection:
- Configuring conditional access policies for secure access controls.
- Implementing Azure AD Identity Protection for detecting and mitigating identity risks.
- Analyzing security reports and applying remediation actions.
- Implementing multi-factor authentication and single sign-on.

5. Identity Synchronization and Federation:
- Configuring directory synchronization between on-premises and Azure AD.
- Implementing federated authentication and single sign-on with external identity providers.
- Troubleshooting identity synchronization and federation issues.

Exam Objectives:
The Microsoft SC-300 exam evaluates candidates' knowledge and skills in managing identity and access solutions in Microsoft Azure and Microsoft 365 environments. The exam objectives include, but are not limited to:

1. Designing and implementing identity and access controls in Azure Active Directory.
2. Configuring identity governance and privileged identity management controls.
3. Implementing conditional access policies and Azure AD Identity Protection.
4. Managing identity synchronization and federation with on-premises and external identity providers.
5. Monitoring and troubleshooting identity and access management activities.

The Microsoft Identity and Access Administrator certification program typically includes comprehensive training provided by Microsoft or authorized training partners. The syllabus provides a breakdown of the syllabus covered throughout the course, including specific learning objectives and milestones. The syllabus may include the following components:

- Introduction to identity and access management in Microsoft Azure and Microsoft 365
- Azure Active Directory management and configuration
- Identity governance and privileged identity management
- Conditional access and Azure AD Identity Protection
- Identity synchronization and federation
- exam preparation and practice tests
- Final Microsoft Identity and Access Administrator Certification Exam

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Allen Bethea has written articles on programming, web design,operating systems and computer hardware since 2002. He holds a Bachelor of Science from UNC-Chapel Hill and AAS degrees in office technology, mechanical engineering/drafting and internet technology. Allen has extensive experience with desktop and system software for both Windows and Linux operating systems.

Microsoft Previews Strict Location Enforcement To Thwart Stolen Token Access


Microsoft Previews Strict Location Enforcement To Thwart Stolen Token Access

The continuous access evaluation preview aims to address token theft attacks in near real time.

  • By Kurt Mackie
  • 07/28/2023
  • Microsoft on Friday announced a preview of a continuous access evaluation (CAE) setting for the Entra ID Conditional Access service that will let organizations strictly enforce location polices for network access.

    The CAE setting, called "strictly enforce location policies," enables a near real-time access shutdown when IP addresses don't match based on location, as might happen with a stolen token. CAE itself, which Microsoft commercially released last year for Azure Active Directory (now called "Entra ID") users, aims to address time lags when service changes occur on either the client side or service provider side. CAE aims to address potential security problems after events such as password changes and user location changes, for instance.

    While CAE already takes location into account, the "strictly enforce location policies" setting, doesn't appear to have a time lag at all for blocking access when a location mismatch gets detected. It provides a near "real-time response," noted Alex Weinert, vice president of identity security at Microsoft, in the announcement:

    With their ability to strictly enforce location policies and CAE, CAE enabled applications like Exchange Online, SharePoint, Teams, and Microsoft Graph can now revoke tokens in near real-time in response to network change events noticed by the app -- preventing stolen tokens from being replayed outside the trusted network.

    However, while the "strictly enforce location policies" setting for CAE seems like an ideal network security protection, IT pros have to be really cautious about setting it up. They have to test the setting to ensure it doesn't inadvertently block end users.

    Microsoft offered lots of caveats about using the setting, which offers the highest CAE enforcement. Here's how Microsoft's document on the preview described it:

    This option is the highest security modality of CAE location enforcement, and requires that administrators understand the routing of authentication and access requests in their network environment.

    Weinert noted that IT pros wanting to use this setting first need to ensure that "all IP addresses from which your users can access Microsoft Entra ID and resource providers are included in the IP-based named locations policy." If that's not the case, then "you may accidentally block your users," he added.

    About the Author

    Kurt Mackie is senior news producer for 1105 Media's Converge360 group.

    'An unnecessary barrier' | Tennesseans pushing for better access to driver's license knowledge test

    The exam is currently offered in five languages, but several community leaders say those languages do not accurately represent the ones most used in Tennessee.

    KNOXVILLE, Tenn. — Moving to a different country comes with a unique set of challenges, but there's one bump in the road University of Tennessee doctoral student Nagham Abou Zeid wasn't expecting when she arrived in the United States.

    "I realized that it's really hard to live in Knoxville or any non-major U.S. city without a car," she explained.

    Two years ago, Abou Zeid left her family and friends in her home country of Lebanon. Soon after, her new life in East Tennessee quickly came to a halt. 

    "It was very depressing the first few months—being stuck at home, not being able to buy groceries," she recalled.

    Without accessible walking or biking paths and no nearby bus stops, Abou Zeid realized a driver's license would have to be her ticket to success in Knoxville. But the journey to obtaining one was more difficult than she expected.

    "It took me at least a month to be fully prepared, and I was still very nervous taking the test," she said.

    Getting behind the wheel was no problem for Abou Zeid. She obtained a driver's license in Lebanon six years ago and has been driving ever since. Like many Lebanese people, Abou Zeid is fluent in Arabic and French. She also speaks some Spanish and became proficient in English as an undergraduate student.

    Even so, she said she wishes she had the option of taking the Tennessee driver's license knowledge test in Arabic. 

    "The shoulder of the road, or the rear of the car or the rearview mirror—these are words I've never heard in my life," Abou Zeid said. "You are fully capable of driving; it's just you don't understand the language on the driver's test."

    Some Tennesseans are calling on state officials to offer the driver's license knowledge exam in more languages.

    The test is currently offered in five languages: English, Spanish, Japanese, Korean and German. However, several community leaders say this list does not accurately represent the languages most used in Tennessee.

    As the founder and director of Elmahaba Center in Nashville, Lydia Yousief leads one of the organizations fighting for the exam to be offered in more languages. "We are creating an unnecessary barrier," she said.

    Yousief works first-hand with immigrants, refugees and people who speak English as a second language. "How much do immigrants spend just to get on their feet that is completely unnecessary? The amount of times they fail the exam, the amount of times they can't go to work, the amount of times they can't see a doctor for being sick, because who's going to drive them?"

    Elmahaba Center is one of six organizations leading a petition demanding greater access to driver's licenses. Yousief said the lack of language access on the exam makes Tennessee roads more dangerous for everyone.

    "It is actually safer to translate material and make sure people understand how to interact with each other with huge machinery, as opposed to expecting them to just memorize things anxiously because they have to get to work," Yousief added. "I feel like it should have been done 20 years ago, like most states." 

    Nearby states including Kentucky, Georgia and Alabama offer the exam in multiple languages, including Arabic.

    "I [have been] in Knoxville for 10 years now. From the first day I got here, it is still an issue," Knoxville resident Egide Irambona explained.

    Originally from East Africa, Irambona now helps lead Sodela, a nonprofit assisting new Americans in East Tennessee—a position he was once in.

    "Even myself, I failed [the knowledge exam] twice. I failed it twice, but I did not give up give up. I keep fighting, fighting until I get a driver's license," Irambona said.

    Now, his fight continues on behalf of others: "If other states offer this, why Tennessee cannot offer it?"

    For decades, that question has led to a dead-end, but advocates say it's time to drive Tennessee forward.

    These changes would fall under the Tennessee Department of Safety and Homeland Security. WBIR has contacted the department for comment and has not heard back.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug