Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Microsoft SC-300 : Microsoft Identity and Access Administrator ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : SC-300
Exam Name : Microsoft Identity and Access Administrator
Vendor Name : Microsoft
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SC-300 test Format | SC-300 Course Contents | SC-300 Course Outline | SC-300 test Syllabus | SC-300 test Objectives


Test Detail:
The Microsoft SC-300 exam, also known as the Microsoft Identity and Access Administrator exam, is a certification test that validates an individual's knowledge and skills in managing identity and access solutions in Microsoft Azure and Microsoft 365 environments. This certification is designed for professionals who work with identity and access management technologies and want to demonstrate their expertise in implementing secure access controls.

Course Outline:
The Microsoft Identity and Access Administrator course provides participants with a comprehensive understanding of identity and access management solutions in Microsoft Azure and Microsoft 365. The following is a general outline of the key areas covered in the certification program:

1. Identity and Access Management Fundamentals:
- Understanding identity and access management concepts and best practices.
- Exploring the role of identity providers, authentication, and authorization.
- Understanding the security principles and controls for managing access.

2. Microsoft Azure Active Directory:
- Managing user identities in Azure Active Directory (Azure AD).
- Configuring Azure AD authentication methods and policies.
- Implementing Azure AD self-service password reset and multi-factor authentication.
- Integrating Azure AD with other cloud and on-premises applications.

3. Identity Governance and Privileged Identity Management:
- Designing and implementing identity governance strategies.
- Managing access reviews and entitlements in Azure AD.
- Implementing privileged identity management controls and workflows.
- Monitoring and auditing identity-related activities.

4. Conditional Access and Azure AD Identity Protection:
- Configuring conditional access policies for secure access controls.
- Implementing Azure AD Identity Protection for detecting and mitigating identity risks.
- Analyzing security reports and applying remediation actions.
- Implementing multi-factor authentication and single sign-on.

5. Identity Synchronization and Federation:
- Configuring directory synchronization between on-premises and Azure AD.
- Implementing federated authentication and single sign-on with external identity providers.
- Troubleshooting identity synchronization and federation issues.

Exam Objectives:
The Microsoft SC-300 test evaluates candidates' knowledge and skills in managing identity and access solutions in Microsoft Azure and Microsoft 365 environments. The test objectives include, but are not limited to:

1. Designing and implementing identity and access controls in Azure Active Directory.
2. Configuring identity governance and privileged identity management controls.
3. Implementing conditional access policies and Azure AD Identity Protection.
4. Managing identity synchronization and federation with on-premises and external identity providers.
5. Monitoring and troubleshooting identity and access management activities.

Syllabus:
The Microsoft Identity and Access Administrator certification program typically includes comprehensive training provided by Microsoft or authorized training partners. The syllabus provides a breakdown of the courses covered throughout the course, including specific learning objectives and milestones. The syllabus may include the following components:

- Introduction to identity and access management in Microsoft Azure and Microsoft 365
- Azure Active Directory management and configuration
- Identity governance and privileged identity management
- Conditional access and Azure AD Identity Protection
- Identity synchronization and federation
- test preparation and practice tests
- Final Microsoft Identity and Access Administrator Certification Exam



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Microsoft Access ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

 

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How to change the Field size in Microsoft Access

In Microsoft Access, you can adjust the amount of space of each record in an Access table by changing the Field size property of number fields and text fields in the table. Most field size changes can be made in either Datasheet view or Design view, but to change the changing number fields such as Bonus Rate field can only be adjusted in the Design View because the values in the Bonus Rate field have decimal places, such as Only Single, Double or Decimal.

Microsoft_Office_Access_logo

What happens when I change the Field size?

In Access, you can change the field size that is empty or already has data.

  • If the field size does not contain data: When you change field size, the value of the new data values is limited for the field. For number fields, the field size determines how much disk space Access uses for each value of the field, and for the text fields, the size determines the maximum amount of disk space that Access allows for each value of the field.
  • If the fields contain data: When the field size is changed, Access truncates all field size that exceeds the specified field size and limits the value of the size of the new data values for the field.
  • To increase, decrease or modify the Field size in Microsoft Access, follow this procedure:

    Change the Field size of a Number field

    Launch Microsoft Access.

    On the navigation pane on the left, click the table that contains the field size you want to change.

    Then click View on the Home tab and select Design view.

    How to change the Field size in Access

    In the table design grid,  select the field for which you want to change the field size.

    On the Field properties pane, input the new field size in the Field Size area on the General tab.

    Depending on the fields you choose on the table design grid, the Field Size property will display values in the field size menu; for instance, if they click the Telephone number field with the Number data type and then click Field Size area on the Field Size properties pane on the General tab.

    You will see an arrow; by clicking the arrow, it will display a drop-down menu with values that you can choose from, such as Byte, Integer, Long Integer, Single, Double, Replication ID, and Decimal.

    Change the Field size of a Text field

    On the navigation pane on the left, click the table that contains the field size you want to change.

    Then click the Design view.

    In the table design grid,  select the field for which you want to change the field size.

    On the Field properties pane, enter the new field size in the Field Size area on the General tab. You can enter a value from 1 to 255, which specifies the maximum number of characters each value can have.

    We hope this tutorial helps you understand how to change the field size in Microsoft Access or Access 365; if you have questions about the tutorial, let us know in the comments.


     


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug