Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : SPLK-1003
Exam Name : Splunk Enterprise Certified Admin
Vendor Name : Splunk
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SPLK-1003 test Format | SPLK-1003 Course Contents | SPLK-1003 Course Outline | SPLK-1003 test Syllabus | SPLK-1003 test Objectives


The Splunk Enterprise Certified Admin test is the final step towards completion of the Splunk Enterprise Certified Admin certification. This upper-level certification test is a 57-minute, 63-question test which evaluates a candidates knowledge and skills to manage various components of Splunk on a daily basis, including the health of the Splunk installation. Candidates can expect an additional 3 minutes to review the test agreement, for a total seat time of 60 minutes. It is recommended that candidates for this certification complete the lecture, hands-on labs, and quizzes that are part of the Splunk Enterprise System Administration and Splunk Enterprise Data Administration courses in order to be prepared for the certification exam. Splunk Enterprise Certified Admin is a required prerequisite to the Splunk Enterprise Certified Architect and Splunk Certified Developer certification tracks.
The Splunk Enterprise System Administration course focuses on administrators who manage a Splunk Enterprise environment. courses include Splunk license manager, indexers and search heads, configuration, management, and monitoring. The Splunk Enterprise Data Administration course targets administrators who are responsible for getting data into Splunk. The course provides content about Splunk forwarders and methods to get remote data into Splunk.
The following content areas are general guidelines for the content to be included on the exam:
● Splunk deployment overview
● License management
● Splunk apps
● Splunk configuration files
● Users, roles, and authentication
● Getting data in
● Distributed search
● Introduction to Splunk clusters
● Deploy forwarders with Forwarder Management
● Configure common Splunk data inputs
● Customize the input parsing process

1.0 Splunk Admin Basics 5%
1.1 Identify Splunk components
2.0 License Management 5%
2.1 Identify license types
2.2 Understand license violations
3.0 Splunk Configuration Files 5%
3.1 Describe Splunk configuration directory structure
3.2 Understand configuration layering
3.3 Understand configuration precedence
3.4 Use btool to examine configuration settings
4.0 Splunk Indexes 10%
4.1 Describe index structure
4.2 List types of index buckets
4.3 Check index data integrity
4.4 Describe indexes.conf options
4.5 Describe the fishbucket
4.6 Apply a data retention policy
5.0 Splunk User Management 5%
5.1 Describe user roles in Splunk
5.2 Create a custom role
5.3 Add Splunk users
6.0 Splunk Authentication Management 5%
6.1 Integrate Splunk with LDAP
6.2 List other user authentication options
6.3 Describe the steps to enable Multifactor Authentication in Splunk
7.0 Getting Data In 5%
7.1 Describe the basic settings for an input
7.2 List Splunk forwarder types
7.3 Configure the forwarder
7.4 Add an input to UF using CLI
8.0 Distributed Search 10%
8.1 Describe how distributed search works
8.2 Explain the roles of the search head and search peers
8.3 Configure a distributed search group
8.4 List search head scaling options
9.0 Getting Data In – Staging 5%
9.1 List the three phases of the Splunk Indexing process
9.2 List Splunk input options
10.0 Configuring Forwarders 5%
10.1 Configure Forwarders
10.2 Identify additional Forwarder options
11.0 Forwarder Management 10%
11.1 Explain the use of Deployment Management
11.2 Describe Splunk Deployment Server
11.3 Manage forwarders using deployment apps
11.4 Configure deployment clients
11.5 Configure client groups
11.6 Monitor forwarder management activities
12.0 Monitor Inputs 5%
12.1 Create file and directory monitor inputs
12.2 Use optional settings for monitor inputs
12.3 Deploy a remote monitor input
13.0 Network and Scripted Inputs 5%
13.1 Create network (TCP and UDP) inputs
13.2 Describe optional settings for network inputs
13.3 Create a basic scripted input
14.0 Agentless Inputs 5%
14.1 Identify Windows input types and uses
14.2 Describe HTTP Event Collector
15.0 Fine Tuning Inputs 5%
15.1 Understand the default processing that occurs during input phase
15.2 Configure input phase options, such as sourcetype fine-tuning and character set encoding
16.0 Parsing Phase and Data 5%
16.1 Understand the default processing that occurs during parsing
16.2 Optimize and configure event line breaking
16.3 Explain how timestamps and time zones are extracted or assigned to events
16.4 Use Data Preview to validate event creation during the parsing phase
17.0 Manipulating Raw Data 5%
17.1 Explain how data transformations are defined and invoked
17.2 Use transformations with props.conf and transforms.conf to:
● Mask or delete raw data as it is being indexed
● Override sourcetype or host based upon event values
● Route events to specific indexes based on event content
● Prevent unwanted events from being indexed
17.3 Use SEDCMD to modify raw data



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug