Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Admission-Tests SSAT : Secondary School Admission Test ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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SSAT test Format | SSAT Course Contents | SSAT Course Outline | SSAT test Syllabus | SSAT test Objectives

The SSAT is a standardized test used by admission officers to assess the abilities of students seeking to enroll in an independent school. The SSAT measures the basic verbal, math, and memorizing skills students need for successful performance in independent schools. It's an indispensable tool that gives admission professionals an equitable means to assess and compare applicants, regardless of their background or experience.

A nonprofit organization, The Enrollment Management Association provides professional support and advocacy to the enrollment offices of more than 900 independent schools, and administers the gold-standard SSAT to 80,000-plus candidates who apply for admission each year.

The SSAT is not an achievement test, which is a test created to determine a level of skill, accomplishment, or knowledge in a specific area. It does not measure the personal characteristics such as motivation, persistence, or creativity, that also contribute to success in school. Your SSAT score is just one part of your complete application to an independent school and while it is important, it is not the only criterion used in admission decisions.

From the moment you are admitted to the Test Center until the time of dismissal, your test administrator follows precise instructions for the proctoring of the SSAT. Any deviations from these uniform testing conditions are reported immediately. Of course, a student with a disability may apply for testing accommodations, but the processes and procedures for the test's administration remain the same for every student.

You understand and agree that the SSAT is a secure, confidential examination, and its contents are
disclosed to candidates in a limited context to permit candidates to take the examination for the
purpose of obtaining examination results and submitting them to an independent school as part of its
admission process, and for no other purpose. You further understand and agree that the SSAT and all
related materials, including confidential examination questions, answer choices and all additional
examination content are the sole property of The Association and are protected by United States and
international copyright and trade secret laws. You agree that you will not discuss or disclose SSAT
content orally, in writing, on the Internet, through social media or through any other medium existing
today or invented in the future. You also agree that you will not copy, reproduce, adapt, disclose, or
transmit SSAT examination questions or answer choices or any examination content, in whole or in part,
or assist or solicit anyone else in doing the same. You further agree that you will not reconstruct
examination content from memory, by dictation, or by any other means, for the purpose of sharing that
information with any other individual or entity. You further agree and attest that, prior to taking the
SSAT examination, you have not solicited, received or reviewed confidential examination questions,
answer choices or any other examination content represented or understood to be copied or derived
from a prior SSAT examination.

In developing the SSAT, The Association convenes review committees composed of content experts and
independent school teachers. The committees reach consensus regarding the appropriateness of the
questions. Questions judged to be acceptable after the committee review are then pretested and
analyzed. Questions that are statistically sound are ready to be selected and assembled into test forms.

Students should understand the type and number of sections, the length of the sections, and the
general types of questions on each section. This information is all found within this handbook. If youve
selected for your student to take the CBT, you can also reference Practice Online in order for your
student to practice taking a computer-based SSAT. Please be aware that the user interface on Practice
Online is different from the user interface that students will experience at Prometric. Furthermore,
there are differences regarding the test administration. At Prometric Test Centers, there will be no
proctor in the room, and the room will include a varied age-range of test takers, some of whom will be
taking a test other than the SSAT. Students will also need to read the instructions on their own.

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Test-Optional College Admission, Explained

Many colleges have made standardized test scores an optional part of their application process instead of a requirement. The move to test-optional admissions is not only in response to the COVID-19 pandemic but also part of a larger effort to make the admission process more accessible. So, should you still take the ACT/SAT? Here are some things to consider. 

What does "test-optional" mean?

Test-optional admission means that you can choose whether or not to submit ACT/SAT scores as part of your application for admission. Colleges are not taking a uniform approach to going test-optional. Some offer test-optional applications for admission but require scores for scholarship consideration.

At Saint Louis University, ACT/SAT scores are optional. You may submit test scores as part of your application, but students who don’t will not be disadvantaged in any way.

Taking the ACT/SAT Keeps Your College Options Open 

If you haven’t narrowed down your list of colleges, taking the ACT/SAT will provide you the most options. 

Timeline tip: Many high school students take the PSAT in the fall of junior year and the ACT or SAT during spring of their junior year. 

may require test scores for scholarship consideration or for certain academic programs. Research specific ACT/SAT requirements for schools you are considering. 

Fairtest.org is a resource for general info and updates on standardized testing.

Keep Exploring Be A Billiken

Standardized Test Policy

Connecticut College is test-optional.

We don’t require applicants to submit standardized test scores because they think there are better ways to determine if you’ll be successful at Conn. And they want you to highlight your strengths in the application process, not write about a random subject we've assigned. They believe your high school transcript, essay, recommendations or other application materials may show your strengths better than test scores.

How to decide whether to submit your test scores

Our advice is to submit your scores if you feel they are representative of your achievement and will enhance your application. (Review the middle 50% range of scores submitted for the Class of 2024.) However, if you feel your standardized test scores do not reflect your full potential and elect not to submit them, you will not be at a disadvantage in the admission process.

In the Common App, simply choose which one testing score option you'd like us to consider:

  • No tests
  • SAT Reasoning Test (essay is not required)
  • ACT (writing component is not required)
  • If you want to submit your test scores

    If you would like us to consider your tests scores as part of your application, note that they accept both official and self-reported test scores.

    Official test scores can be submitted in any of the following ways:

  • Directly from the testing agency (SAT and ACT).
  • By your high school counselor via email (admission@conncoll.edu) or fax (860-439-4301).
  • By your high school counselor via official transcript.
  • Self-reported test scores can be submitted in either of the following ways:

  • Enter scores in the testing section of the Common Application.
  • Submit screenshots or scanned copies of score reports via email (admission@conncoll.edu) or fax (860-439-4301).
  • If you submit self-reported scores, please note that your official test scores will be required upon enrollment. Any discrepancies from self-reported test scores may result in rescinding their offer of admission.

    We “superscore” the SAT Reasoning Test and use the combined highest composite score from the ACT. You should send scores from every SAT/ACT date for which you received your best scores in specific sections.

    Scores from standardized tests taken through November typically arrive in time for Early Decision I consideration. Tests taken in December will arrive in time for Early Decision II and Regular Decision applicants.

    Transfer Testing

    Standardized test scores are not considered in the transfer application process.

    English Proficiency Requirement

    Conn's standardized testing policy does not apply to testing for purposes of demonstrating English proficiency. Students whose first language is not English must submit the TOEFL, IELTS, Duolingo or PTE.

    Test Optional

    Calvin will no longer require students to submit standardized test scores when applying for undergraduate admission.

    We know that you are more than your test scores. Their experience at Calvin, as backed up by extensive research, has shown that academic achievement in the classroom is a stronger indicator of student success. With their test-optional approach, they hope students who view standardized tests as a barrier to college—or those who have not been able to take standardized tests during the pandemic—will have increased access to a Calvin education.

    What does it mean to apply as test optional?

    Simply put, test optional means that students do not need to provide standardized test scores in order to be considered for admission to Calvin University. Students may choose not to include their SAT, ACT, or CLT test score(s) when they apply for admission. Their application file will still be reviewed for an admissions decision.

    How do I apply as test optional?

    A new test optional question is included on both the Common Application and the Calvin Application. Simply check “Yes” or “No.”

    How will Calvin review my application without test scores?

    Calvin has always used a holistic review process when reviewing applications for admission. Their admissions team will consider your academic achievement, unique talents, leadership and service activities, and any other information you choose to submit in your application. They look for students who demonstrate they want to be involved in a welcoming diverse campus community and who value faith, discovery, and community.

    Will applying as test optional affect my eligibility for scholarships?

    You are eligible to receive the same academic scholarships whether you apply as test optional or submit your test scores (SAT, ACT, or CLT).

    If you choose not to submit test scores when you apply for admission, your GPA will be used to calculate any academic scholarship for which you qualify. You will be notified of an academic scholarship in your admission letter.

    If you decide to submit your test scores later—even if you applied as test optional—Calvin will review new scores until March 1 and notify you by email of any increase to your academic scholarship. New test scores will not reduce your previously awarded academic scholarship, so there is no disadvantage to submitting test scores.

    Certain named (donor) scholarships require a test score in order to qualify. Many named (donor) scholarships do not require a test score.

    There are also some outside agencies that require test scores. For example, to automatically qualify for the Federal TEACH Grant, you may want to submit your test score(s). However, this can be done at a later date.

    Who can apply as test optional?
  • Domestic first-year applicants who are applying to Calvin for the first time and who have never formally matriculated at another college or university are eligible to apply as test optional.
  • International first-year applicants whose first language is English are eligible to take advantage of the test-optional policy. However, if English is not your first language or you are attending a school where English is not the primary language of instruction, you will be required to submit the results of your Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), the International English Language Test System (IELTS), or Duolingo as evidence of English proficiency.
  • If you take the SAT and earn a score of 500 or higher on the Evidence-Based memorizing and Writing section (EBRW), your English proficiency admission requirement will be waived.

    Should I apply as test optional?

    If you feel that your test scores are an accurate portrayal of your academic ability, feel free to include your test scores in your application. If you feel that your academic ability is better demonstrated by your high school transcripts than with your test scores, you should consider applying as test optional.

    Can I change my mind about applying as test optional?

    Upon application to Calvin as test optional, students agree to have their application reviewed for an admissions decision without scores. This means that after receiving an admissions decision you may not submit test scores in order to be considered for early admission to a specific academic program (i.e., early admission to Nursing or Speech Pathology). However, Calvin recognizes that standardized testing has been interrupted due to the pandemic and will work with applicants who want to submit scores but are not able to.

    Special circumstances
  • Students who choose test optional may be asked for additional information. The student's admissions representative or the admissions committee may request additional information such as a new writing trial or a letter of recommendation.
  • Deferred students: Students who applied for a previous semester but did not attend and are now reapplying may now apply as test optional.
  • Denied students: If a student chose to include test scores when applying for admission and was denied admission, Calvin will not re-review them as test optional. Students should go through the regular appeal process to appeal the denial and provide new academic information for consideration.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug