Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Apple SVC-19A : Apple Service Fundamentals test Exam Dumps

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Exam Number : SVC-19A
Exam Name : Apple Service Fundamentals Exam
Vendor Name : Apple
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SVC-19A test Format | SVC-19A Course Contents | SVC-19A Course Outline | SVC-19A test Syllabus | SVC-19A test Objectives

Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The SVC-19A (Apple Service Fundamentals) test typically consists of multiple-choice questions. The exact number of questions may vary, but it is typically around 60 to 90 questions.

- Time: Candidates are usually given a specific amount of time to complete the exam. The duration can vary depending on the certification provider and test format, but it is generally around 90 to 120 minutes.

Course Outline:
The SVC-19A certification is designed to assess the knowledge and skills required for providing service and support for Apple products. The course outline may cover the following key areas:

1. Apple Product Line Overview:
- Understanding the different product categories (Mac, iPhone, iPad, Apple Watch, etc.)
- Identifying key features and specifications of Apple products
- Exploring the latest product releases and updates

2. Customer Experience and Communication:
- Developing effective communication skills with customers
- Providing exceptional customer service and support
- Resolving customer issues and concerns professionally

3. Troubleshooting and Diagnostics:
- Applying systematic troubleshooting methods for Apple products
- Using diagnostic tools and resources effectively
- Identifying common hardware and software issues
- Troubleshooting network connectivity and software configurations

4. Mac Hardware and Software:
- Understanding Mac hardware components and configurations
- Performing basic hardware repairs and upgrades
- Troubleshooting common Mac software issues
- Configuring macOS and managing user accounts

5. iOS Device Hardware and Software:
- Understanding iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch hardware components
- Performing basic repairs and replacements for iOS devices
- Troubleshooting iOS software issues
- Configuring and managing iOS devices

6. Apple Watch and Apple TV:
- Understanding Apple Watch and Apple TV features and functionality
- Troubleshooting common issues with Apple Watch and Apple TV
- Performing basic repairs and troubleshooting for Apple Watch and Apple TV

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the SVC-19A test typically include:
- Assessing the candidate's knowledge and understanding of Apple product lines, including hardware and software components.
- Evaluating the candidate's ability to troubleshoot and diagnose issues with Apple products.
- Testing the candidate's knowledge and skills in providing exceptional customer service and support.
- Assessing the candidate's proficiency in performing basic repairs and maintenance tasks for Apple products.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific test syllabus for the SVC-19A test may include the following topics:

1. Apple Product Line Overview:
- Mac product line and specifications
- iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch product line and specifications
- Apple Watch features and functionality
- Apple TV features and functionality

2. Customer Experience and Communication:
- Effective communication with customers
- Customer service best practices
- Resolving customer issues and concerns

3. Troubleshooting and Diagnostics:
- Troubleshooting methodologies
- Using diagnostic tools and resources
- Identifying common hardware and software issues

4. Mac Hardware and Software:
- Mac hardware components and configurations
- Basic Mac hardware repairs and upgrades
- Troubleshooting Mac software issues
- macOS configuration and user management

5. iOS Device Hardware and Software:
- iOS device hardware components and configurations
- Basic iOS device repairs and replacements
- Troubleshooting iOS software issues
- iOS device configuration and management

6. Apple Watch and Apple TV:
- Apple Watch features and functionality
- Troubleshooting Apple Watch issues
- Apple TV features and functionality
- Troubleshooting Apple TV issues

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4 things Claude AI can do that ChatGPT can't

GOCMEN via iStock/Getty Images Plus

ChatGPT is often considered the best artificial intelligence (AI) chatbot available. GPT-3.5, the large language model (LLM) used in the free version of ChatGPT, was the largest and most powerful of its kind, surpassed only by GPT-4, which is only available with a $20 monthly subscription to ChatGPT Plus. 

The success of ChatGPT upon launch swiftly inspired other companies to publicly launch their own AI chatbots, as evidenced by Microsoft's Bing AI, Google's Bard, and Anthropic's Claude, to name a few.

Also: 4 ways to increase the usability of AI, according to industry experts

Anthropic, a safety and research company focused on AI, recently launched the latest version of its AI chatbot, Claude 2. Since then, it's become clear that this generative AI tool has advantages over OpenAI's free version of ChatGPT. 

ChatGPT and Claude have strengths in different areas. But even though Claude isn't better at everything compared to its main competitor, it has some features that supply it an edge over ChatGPT. Which works better for you is all about determining which AI to use for different circumstances.

Adding files in a chat is Claude's definitive advantage over ChatGPT. 

Claude lets you upload files by clicking the attachment button or dragging and dropping them right onto the text input area. Users can add up to five files at a time, each one up to 10MB. 

Also: How to achieve hyper-personalization using generative AI

When a user uploads a file and submits it with no other instructions, Claude will automatically summarize it. Summarization isn't the only benefit. Once you add text or a file into a conversation, the AI chatbot will learn about it and maintain the context of the information you shared throughout the ensuing conversation. 

As a result, you can ask the chatbot follow-up questions specific to the document or text, such as explaining something you didn't understand or that wasn't covered in the summary. For example, if you add a medical study PDF into a chat with Claude, it'll learn what the study says, so you can ask it specific questions, such as, 'what was the intent of the study?' or 'what percentage of participants had X results?'

The uploaded files can be Word documents, PDFs, .txt, .csv, and others. It doesn't handle Excel spreadsheets, although you can convert those to PDFs and then upload them to Claude to summarize. 

Claude 2.0 was launched with a whopping 100K tokens, which makes for longer input and output. This capability means users can enter up to around 75,000 words in each prompt.

Claude's 100K context exceeds ChatGPT's 8K context. Context enables LLMs to generate nuanced, natural language by leveraging massive datasets used to train them on the contextual relationships between words and phrases. 

In simple terms, this context is the background information, such as previous chats, the back-and-forth conversation from earlier in a chat, and user preferences that supply the AI bot a better understanding of what's happening. This information could be maintaining context within a long conversation or applying it to a user's settings. Typically, the larger the context, the more accurate the information in a conversation. 

Also: You can build your own AI chatbot with this drag-and-drop tool

Context helps the AI chatbot understand when a user, for example, might be referring to a "bat" in sports equipment or an animal.

Claude's context means it can parse and summarize long documents, including scientific and medical studies, books, and reports. It also means Claude can generate long texts that are up to several thousand words long. 

Claude was trained with data up to December 2022, and Anthropic says it may know some events into early 2023. In contrast, ChatGPT is trained on data leading up to September 2021. 

Also: These are my 5 favorite AI tools for work

While neither AI chatbot has access to the internet, Claude knows information that ChatGPT doesn't, such as the products Apple launched last year and the specs of the Galaxy S23 lineup of smartphones launched in February 2023.

Users can not only add documents to Claude, but can also drop links into the chat and get it to summarize the contents. When you add links, Anthropic warns that Claude might hallucinate content when links are input into the chat, which I found to be true about a third of the time. 

The example below shows how Claude "summarized" a Wall Street Journal article when I gave it just the link on the left, and when I gave it the text I accessed with my subscription on the right. This task resulted in two striking issues: major hallucinations, and the possibility of accessing paywalled content.

The article discusses controversies involving restaurant tipping in Chicago, where new regulations are being considered. Claude's major hallucination involved saying that the issue was being debated in New York City instead of Chicago, which changes the main subject of the article.  

Also: How does ChatGPT actually work?

The fact that it seems like it can access content through links brings up the question of whether or not Claude can bypass paywalls, a characteristic that could infringe copyright laws. I did supply Claude paywalled links to test its capabilities. Claude gave a summary that was similar to the answer it gave using the copied text, albeit with hallucinations. 

The bottom line is that I wouldn't trust the summarization Claude makes through links, as the results can be wildly inaccurate. However, summarization is a major feature that Anthropic could Strengthen and build upon, as long as restrictions to respect paywalled content are in place.

The left image shows how Claude summarized the link I gave it, and the right shows how it summarized the text. The discrepancies are highlighted.

Screenshot by Maria Diaz/ZDNET

ChatGPT and Claude are both powerful AI chatbots, but there are differences in capabilities that make Claude more capable of excelling at certain tasks, such as parsing large texts and documents, like PDFs.

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug