Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Salesforce Inc (CRM): A Technical Analysis

Salesforce Inc (NYSE: CRM) has a higher price-to-earnings ratio of 97.22x compared to its average ratio. compared to its average ratio and a 36-month beta value of 1.28. Analysts have mixed views on the stock, with 30 analysts rating it as a “buy,” 3 as “overweight,” 14 as “hold,” and 0 as “sell.”

The average price point forecasted by analysts for Salesforce Inc (CRM) is $277.46, which is $21.02 above the current market price. The public float for CRM is 936.67M, and currently, short sellers hold a 1.01% ratio of that float. The average trading volume of CRM on January 03, 2024 was 5.21M shares.

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CRM) stock’s latest price update

Salesforce Inc (NYSE: CRM) has experienced a decline in its stock price by -2.66 compared to its previous closing price of 263.14. However, the company has seen a fall of -3.83% in its stock price over the last five trading days. CNBC Television reported 2024-01-02 that ‘Mad Money’ host Jim Cramer looks back at the top stocks in the Dow for 2023, what’s behind their success and how they are positioned for 2024.

CRM’s Market Performance

Salesforce Inc (CRM) has seen a -3.83% fall in stock performance for the week, with a 1.68% gain in the past month and a 25.73% surge in the past quarter. The volatility ratio for the week is 1.15%, and the volatility levels for the past 30 days are at 1.82% for CRM. The simple moving average for the last 20 days is -1.08% for CRM’s stock, with a simple moving average of 19.65% for the last 200 days.

Analysts’ Opinion of CRM

Many brokerage firms have already submitted their reports for CRM stocks, with Morgan Stanley repeating the rating for CRM by listing it as a “Overweight.” The predicted price for CRM in the upcoming period, according to Morgan Stanley is $350 based on the research report published on December 21, 2023 of the previous year 2023.

CRM Trading at 10.51% from the 50-Day Moving Average

After a stumble in the market that brought CRM to its low price for the period of the last 52 weeks, the company was unable to rebound, for now settling with -4.56% of loss for the given period.

Volatility was left at 1.82%, however, over the last 30 days, the volatility rate increased by 1.15%, as shares sank -1.49% for the moving average over the last 20 days. Over the last 50 days, in opposition, the stock is trading +22.95% upper at present.

During the last 5 trading sessions, CRM fell by -3.83%, which changed the moving average for the period of 200-days by +36.75% in comparison to the 20-day moving average, which settled at $258.74. In addition, Salesforce Inc saw -2.66% in overturn over a single year, with a tendency to cut further losses.

Insider Trading

Reports are indicating that there were more than several insider trading activities at CRM starting from Benioff Marc, who sale 265,000 shares at the price of $263.55 back on Dec 29. After this action, Benioff Marc now owns 13,941,166 shares of Salesforce Inc, valued at $69,840,201 using the latest closing price.

Weaver Amy E, the President and CFO of Salesforce Inc, sale 12,249 shares at $264.94 during a trade that took place back on Dec 29, which means that Weaver Amy E is holding 37,979 shares at $3,245,213 based on the most exact closing price.

Stock Fundamentals for CRM

Current profitability levels for the company are sitting at:

  • +5.93 for the present operating margin
  • +65.09 for the gross margin
  • The net margin for Salesforce Inc stands at +0.66. The total capital return value is set at 2.55, while invested capital returns managed to touch 0.29. Equity return is now at value 4.41, with 2.83 for asset returns.

    Based on Salesforce Inc (CRM), the company’s capital structure generated 25.50 points at debt to equity in total, while total debt to capital is 20.32. Total debt to assets is 14.50, with long-term debt to equity ratio resting at 22.02. Finally, the long-term debt to capital ratio is 17.55.

    When they switch over and look at the enterprise to sales, they see a ratio of 7.57, with the company’s debt to enterprise value settled at 0.09. The receivables turnover for the company is 2.89 and the total asset turnover is 0.31. The liquidity ratio also appears to be rather interesting for investors as it stands at 0.95.


    To put it simply, Salesforce Inc (CRM) has had a mixed performance in exact times. Analysts have a bullish opinion on the stock, with some rating it as a “buy” and others as a “hold”. It is worth mentioning that the stock is currently trading in close proximity to its 50-day moving average and its 52-week high.

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug