Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : Salesforce-Certified-Marketing-Cloud-Consultant
Exam Name : Certified Marketing Cloud Consultant
Vendor Name : Salesforce
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Salesforce-Certified-Marketing-Cloud-Consultant exam Format | Salesforce-Certified-Marketing-Cloud-Consultant Course Contents | Salesforce-Certified-Marketing-Cloud-Consultant Course Outline | Salesforce-Certified-Marketing-Cloud-Consultant exam Syllabus | Salesforce-Certified-Marketing-Cloud-Consultant exam Objectives


The Salesforce Marketing Cloud Consultant exam measures a candidates knowledge and skills related to the following objectives. A candidate should have hands-on experience with the Marketing Cloud Email application and demonstrate the knowledge and expertise in each of the areas below.



Discovery: 15%

Provided with a set of business requirements, determine what additional information is needed to design the recommended solution.

Provided with a list of branding and creative strategies, probe for additional information that is needed to recommend an appropriate solution.

Provided a customer environment and goals, determine the viability of external systems that need to be included in the solution (for example; POS, CRM, eCommerce, data warehouse, data source inputs).

Demonstrate how to gather requirements in order to put together the data and segmentation strategy for the customer (for example; frequency, complexity, volume of sending).

Given a scenario that includes customer information about subscriber acquisition, management, and attrition, utilize this information to select solution components.

Given a solution, recommend the appropriate customer skill sets required to utilize the Marketing Cloud application.

Conceptual Design: 12%

Analyze customer data to determine the appropriate data model (for example; List model, Data Extensions).

Given a scenario, determine the appropriate solution for given requirements considering technical expertise of personas (for example; Automation Studio vs. Journey Builder).

Given a narrative data flow, select the correct data flow diagram that depicts that data flow.

Given a customer scenario, identify which User Stories are appropriate to use for accessing Marketing Cloud.

Given a customer scenario, determine the factors to consider when scaling the solution.

Articulate how data construct will drive one-to-one messaging and content.

Explain the purpose of IP Warming and make a recommendation based on customer needs.

Marketing Cloud Connect: 6%

Understand the prerequisites to consider prior to starting a Marketing Cloud Connect configuration (for example; Salesforce edition, list of integration users, scope user, administrator credentials).

Understand how to send an email to a contact, lead, campaign, and report via the Sales/Service Cloud and Marketing Cloud (for example; sending, triggered, automated).

Understand how Sales/Service Cloud data in the Marketing Cloud can be segmented.

Account Configuration: 10%

Given a customer scenario, recommend the appropriate Marketing Cloud role based on User Stories.

Determine which type of customer scenario warrants the creation of a business unit (for example; publication types, demographic, workflow processes, and organizational structure).

Given a scenario, troubleshoot issues regarding Reply Mail Management.

Analyze the impact of applying a Sender Authentication Package (SAP) to a business unit (for example; link wrapping, Landing Pages, image URLs).

Reporting: 5%

Explain how the information in data views and tracking extracts are accessed.

Compare and contrast standard reports, data views, and tracking extracts.

Summarize Send Logs, including when/why to use it and how to create and manage.

Data Design: 12%

Explain the various data objects in the Marketing Cloud (for example; data extensions, list model, data retention model, publication lists, suppression lists).

Understand available data types, retention, and template options when building a data extension.

Understand how data is retrieved within a Relational Data Model (for example; basic SQL).

Given a customer scenario, recommend the appropriate import method with lists or data extensions.

Understand the implications of a system being database of record.

Automation: 8%

Given a customer scenario, select the appropriate workflow that meets the business requirement (for example; import, segmentation, email send).

Compare and contrast triggered and scheduled interactions.

Email Build: 7%

Understand the required steps to build, test, and deploy an email based on customer requirements.

Explain the various ways to individualize email content (for example; AMPscript, personalization strings, Dynamic Content, Guide Template Language).

Compare and contrast the ways to individualize content, such as SSJS vs. AMPscript, Dynamic Content Wizard vs. AMPscript/LookupRows function.

Explain various Marketing Cloud Email technologies (for example; Link Alias tags, Impression regions, Web Analytics Connector).

Contact Builder: 15%

Explain the role and capabilities within Contact Builder.

Understand how cardinality impacts data modeling.

Summarize how to use Data Designer to incorporate data source into Contact Builder.

Given a customer scenario, know how to build an Attribute Group to be used for a simple interaction.

Journey Builder: 10%

Compare and contrast automation tools, such as Journey Builder and Automation Studio.

Given a customer scenario that includes Journey Builder, evaluate the requirements, activities, and steps.

Explain the requirements for and the methods by which a contact can enter a Journey.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug