Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : Salesforce-Certified-Sales-Cloud-Consultant
Exam Name : Certified Sales Cloud Consultant
Vendor Name : Salesforce
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Salesforce-Certified-Sales-Cloud-Consultant test Format | Salesforce-Certified-Sales-Cloud-Consultant Course Contents | Salesforce-Certified-Sales-Cloud-Consultant Course Outline | Salesforce-Certified-Sales-Cloud-Consultant test Syllabus | Salesforce-Certified-Sales-Cloud-Consultant test Objectives


Content: 60 multiple-choice/multiple-select questions and 5 non-scored questions

Time allotted to complete the exam: 105 minutes

Passing score: 62%

Registration fee: USD 200, plus applicable taxes as required per local law

Retake fee: USD 100, plus applicable taxes as required per local law

Delivery options: Proctored test delivered onsite at a testing center or in an online proctored environment. Click here for information on scheduling an exam.

References: No hard-copy or online materials may be referenced during the exam.

Prerequisite: Salesforce Administrator credential

Please note: When evaluating questions and answers, please consider all currently available features including those available in either Lightning Experience or Salesforce Classic.



The Salesforce Sales Cloud Consultant test measures a candidates knowledge and skills related to the following objectives. A candidate should have hands-on experience implementing Sales Cloud solutions and have demonstrated the application of each of the features/functions below.



Industry Knowledge: 7%

Explain the factors that influence sales metrics, KPIs, and business challenges.

Explain common sales processes and key considerations.

Describe the common marketing processes and key implementation considerations.

Implementation Strategies: 12%

Given a scenario, determine how to facilitate a successful consulting engagement (plan, gather requirements, design, build, test, and document).

Given a scenario, determine appropriate sales deployment considerations.

Given a scenario, measure the success of a Sales Cloud implementation project.

Sales Cloud Solution Design: 21%

Given a set of requirements, design an end-to-end sales process from lead to opportunity to quote to close to order.

Given a scenario, analyze customer requirements to determine an appropriate solution design considering capabilities, limitations, and design trade-offs.

Given a scenario, identify an appropriate approach when designing the lead conversion process.

Describe the implementation considerations when designing a sales process. (validation rules, automation, record types, page layouts, and triggers).

Given a scenario, determine when it is appropriate to include custom application development or a third-party application.

Describe the appropriate use cases for Account and Opportunity Teams and the effect on sales roles, visibility, access, and reporting.

Explain the capabilities and use cases for Enterprise Territory Management.

Explain the capabilities, use cases, and design considerations when implementing Orders.

Explain the capabilities, use cases, and design considerations of Salesforce mobile applications pertinent to the sales process.

Explain the capabilities and use cases for Sales Cloud Einstein as it relates to the sales process.

Marketing and Leads: 8%

Explain how marketing capabilities support the sales process.

Given a scenario, recommend appropriate methods for lead scoring and criteria for lead qualification.

Explain the best practices for managing lead data quality.

Describe the best practices for using lead automation tools and campaign management.

Account and Contact Management: 13%

Given a scenario, explain how the ownership of account and contact records drive visibility of related sales information such as opportunities, activities, etc.

Explain the various methods for establishing relationships between accounts and contacts.

Given a scenario, explain the impact of having an account hierarchy.

Given a scenario, explain the methods for populating and maintaining account and contact data using data enrichment tools.

Given a scenario, explain the use cases and implications for implementing person accounts.

Opportunity Management: 13%

Given a set of requirements, determine how to support different sales process scenarios.

Given a scenario, determine the relationships between sales stages, forecast, and pipeline.

Given a scenario, describe the relationships between opportunities to assets, product line items and schedules, price books, quotes, contracts, campaigns, etc.

Given a set of requirements, determine the appropriate forecasting solution.

Describe the implementation considerations of multi-currency and advanced currency management on Opportunities.

Sales Productivity: 9%

Given a scenario, determine the key features that help to enable and measure sales productivity and adoption.

Identify use cases and considerations for using email and productivity tools.

Given a scenario, identify the appropriate mobile solution to Excellerate sales productivity.

Explain the use cases and best practices for using Chatter to enable collaboration in the sales process.

Sales Cloud Analytics: 9%

Given a set of desired metrics, determine the appropriate report, dashboard, or reporting snapshot solution.

Describe the implementation considerations of multi-currency on reports and dashboards.

Given a scenario, determine permissions and access to Reports and Dashboards.

Integration and Data Management: 8%

Explain the use cases and considerations for integrations common to Sales Cloud implementations.

Explain the use cases and considerations for data migration in Sales Cloud.

Given a scenario, analyze the implications and design considerations of large data and transaction volumes.

Explain how integration facilitates the exchange of data between Salesforce organizations.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug