Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Salesforce Pricing Guide (January 2024)

Salesforce offers a full suite of add-ons available mainly on the SalesForce AppExchange. These optional Salesforce programs include tools to support different needs and industries. Depending on the complexity of those needs, you’ll pay anywhere from nothing to hundreds of dollars for one (or multiple) apps. You can also find add-ons under the “products” tab on the Salesforce website.

Salesforce’s apps come from both first- and third-party providers. They also vary in pricing, often including new tiers that differ from what Salesforce offers. Simple apps, like 360 SMS, start at $7 per month but might cost more depending on how many texts you send. Other apps, like the Salesforce Adoption Dashboard, are entirely free. You also have freemium apps, like JotForm, which are free for the first five forms. 

Each app is different, requiring another knowledge base to learn this optional system. Much like shopping for CRM systems, you must go through testing and adoption phases. Thankfully, Salesforce is a cloud-based SaaS system, meaning you can easily customize it according to your needs. Below, you’ll learn more about some of the most popular add-ons you might consider. 

Pardot Pricing

Salesforce Pardot is a popular marketing automation platform that comes in four tiers. Here’s a breakdown of what those tiers provide:

  • Growth: $1,250/mo; focuses on marketing automation 
  • Plus: $2,750/mo; provides deeper analytics and personalization features
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  • Premium: $15,000/mo; offers predictive analytics and personalized product support
  • Pardot supports up to 10,000 contacts, with its higher tier supporting 75,000.

    Service Cloud

    Service Cloud focuses on the customer support side of Salesforce. It also has identical pricing compared to Sales Cloud (Salesforce’s primary offering). Here’s a breakdown of pricing:

  • Starter: $25/user/mo; provides a simple customer case management dashboard
  • Professional: $80/user/mo; provides case swarming and computer telephony integration (CTI)
  • Enterprise: $165/user/mo; provides AI features and a self-service system for your customer support staff
  • Unlimited: $330/user/mo; 24/7 support alongside AI-powered chatbots
  • Unlimited+: $500/user/mo; advanced AI support and the ability to better integrate data across Tableau Analytics and Data Cloud
  • Sales Cloud does not come with Service Cloud. However, you can discuss discounts for integrating both when talking with an account executive. 

    CPQ and Billing

    Both CPQ and Billing are features you can find under Salesforce’s Revenue Cloud service. 

    CPQ (Configuration, Pricing and Quoting) is a flexible pricing system that changes price depending on usage level or optional features. When selling software with add-ons, it can help you simplify billing customers. It comes in two forms:

  • CPQ: $75/user/mo; provides limited customization options
  • CPQ Plus: $150/user/mo; provides more process control and automated features
  • Billing is another feature of Revenue Cloud which comes in two forms, although the pricing requires you to call in:

  • Growth: Has a built-in invoicing system for scheduling and merging multiple invoices
  • Plus: Advanced billing systems based on usage ratings; supports automatic payments
  • If purchasing the complete sales CRM, some of these features are integrated with advanced plans, meaning you don’t need to pay extra. 

    Einstein Analytics

    Einstein Analytics is the AI-driven analytics software from Salesforce that comes with the Unlimited plan. Enterprise customers might choose to pay separately, selecting one of the four plans below:

  • Einstein Predictions: $75/user/mo; provides simple, automated insights
  • CRM Analytics Growth: $140/user/mo; more advanced analytics platform without AI features
  • CRM Analytics Plus: $165/user/mo; combines features from Predictions and Analytics Growth
  • Revenue Intelligence: $220/user/mo; provides revenue insights as well other features
  • MuleSoft

    MuleSoft is an integration-based platform that connects multiple apps, helps integrate numerous APIs and provides automated systems between those softwares. Another way to look at it: it’s a complex version of Zapier with way more power for programmers. 

    MuleSoft’s pricing varies heavily but can cost up to $250,000 per year. You’ll need to call and discuss your unique needs for a quote. 


    Building Skills: Deep Dive into Salesforce Admin and Developer Courses

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug