Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : Scrum-PSM-II
Exam Name : Professional Scrum Master II
Vendor Name : Scrum
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Scrum-PSM-II exam Format | Scrum-PSM-II Course Contents | Scrum-PSM-II Course Outline | Scrum-PSM-II exam Syllabus | Scrum-PSM-II exam Objectives

The Professional Scrum MasterTM level II (PSM II) exam is available to anyone who wishes to demonstrate his or her ability to apply the Scrum framework to solving advanced, complex problems in the real world. Those that pass the exam will receive the industry recognized PSM II Certification as an indication of their advanced knowledge and abilities pertaining to Scrum and the role of the Scrum Master.

Anyone attempting the PSM II should have advanced Scrum knowledge, in-depth Scrum experience and/or have taken the Professional Scrum Master course prior to taking this exam. However, attending a course is neither necessary nor sufficient for certification. The PSM II exam is very difficult, and consists of multiple-choice questions based on your knowledge of Scrum and how you would handle real-world situations.

The PSM II certification exam is an advanced exam and relies heavily on your own experience using scrum, and how you would apply Scrum in particular circumstances. While it is not required they recommend that before taking PSM II you have a passed PSM I and may find it beneficial to review the PSM I Suggested memorizing page during your preparation.

The PSM II exam includes questions from the following Focus Areas as defined in the Professional Scrum Competencies.

Understanding and Applying the Scrum Framework:

Empiricism, Scrum Values, Roles, Events, Artifacts, Done.

Developing People and Teams:

Self-Organizing Teams, Facilitation, Leadership Styles, Coaching and Mentoring.

Managing Products with Agility:

Product Backlog Management, Stakeholders & Customers.

Developing and Delivering Products Professionally:

Managing Technical Risk.

Evolving the Agile Organization:

Organizational Design & Culture.

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Scrum II exam contents


HESI Exams: An Overview of Reliability and Validity

Description of HESI Exams

HESI specialty exams were developed to assess students' knowledge and their ability to apply nursing concepts within specific content areas. Faculties often use scores provided by these specialty exams as a substitute for teacher-made final exams. The E2 was developed to assess students' preparedness for the licensing exam. Data provided by these exams can be useful in preparing self studies for accreditation that are required by accrediting agencies. The National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC)[2] and the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE)[3] require schools of nursing to demonstrate a systematic program evaluation. HESI Summary Reports provide content area scores that can be used to evaluate curricular strengths and weaknesses.[4] Because these exams provide interval-level data, the data can be analyzed using a variety of statistical methods. Since the E2 has demonstrated a high degree of accuracy in predicting outcomes of NCLEX-RN and NCLEX-PN,[4,5,6,7] nursing faculties are increasingly choosing to use E2 scores as benchmarks for progression and remediation.[8,9]

The conceptual framework used to develop HESI exams is grounded in classical test theory and critical thinking theory. The creation, administration, and interpretation of tests are accomplished through educational and psychological measurement processes. Crocker and Algina[10] stated that measurement of psychological attributes occurs when quantitative values are assigned to the trial of behaviors obtained from administering a test. By observing and classifying similar behaviors, the test designer is able to draw inferences about the psychological constructs that contribute to the makeup of the test taker. The test designer may also be able to identify relationships between psychological constructs and practical consequences, therefore predicting test-taking behaviors, such as success in academic programs or nursing practice. To make such predictions, the test designer must first quantify the observations representing the constructs that define these behaviors. The nurses who design and revise the nursing exams use course syllabi from nursing programs across the United States in combination with NCLEX test blueprints provided by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN)[11,12] to define the constructs indicative of behaviors required for entry-level practice. HESI item writers create test items for use on HESI exams that specifically measure these behaviors. Figure 1 describes the theoretical framework for development of HESI exams.

HESI conceptual framework for test development.

The method used by HESI for development of critical thinking test items[13,14] is based on concepts derived from the critical thinking theory described by Paul[15] and the cognitive taxonomy developed by Bloom.[16] Test items on all HESI exams are written and reviewed by nurse educators and clinicians who evaluate the merit of the items as current measures of nursing practice-specifically, the items that reflect high-priority and high-frequency activities characteristic of entry-level RN practice. All submitted test items are reviewed by HESI nurse educators and modified, as needed, by HESI editors. Each test item is categorized by numerous subject areas, and each subject area provides subset scores. All test items are stored in a database along with their particular item analysis data.

HESI specialty exams are available for RN curricula only. However, PN specialty exams are currently in the pilot stage. The specialty exams presented in this article describe only the eight most widely used RN specialty exams.

Specialty exams are designed to measure the student's ability to apply concepts related to specific clinical nursing content areas. Typically, specialty exams consist of 50 test items. Test blueprints for these exams are developed by HESI nurse educators whose clinical practice area is congruent with the exam being developed. Test items that measure nursing knowledge and competencies within the specific clinical specialty area are selected from the HESI database.

Custom exams are specialty exams that are designed to meet specific curricular evaluation needs. Typically, custom specialty exams consist of 50 test items. Test blueprints for custom exams are developed by HESI nurse educators and include the content domain specified in the syllabus or syllabi that are provided to HESI by the faculty requesting the development of a custom exam. Test items that best measure nursing knowledge and competencies within the designated content area are selected from the HESI database. Custom exams are completed following consultation between faculty and HESI nurse educators to ensure that the final products are valid for the constructs to be tested.

Midcurricular exams are custom exams that evaluate content from several nursing courses. Typically, midcurricular exams consist of 100 test items. These exams are administered halfway through the curriculum, which makes them useful as exit exams at the conclusion of the first half of the curriculum. While it is impractical to cite reliability findings for every custom exam that has been developed, the reliability of custom exams is determined in the same manner as it is for all other HESI exams.

The E2 is a 150-item comprehensive exam that is designed for administration near the completion of the curriculum to measure student preparedness for the NCLEX-RN or NCLEX-PN. It is used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the students and the possible need for remediation prior to taking the licensure exam. Four versions of the E2 are available for RN students, and two versions are available for PN students. RN students serve as the norming group for the test items that are included on the RN version of the E2, whereas PN students serve as the norming group for the PN version of the E2. Different versions of the E2 are often used to retest those students who require remediation so that the success of such remediation can be evaluated.

The HESI Predictability Model, a proprietary mathematical model, is used to calculate scores for HESI specialty exams and HESI exit exams. All scores provided by these HESI exams are based on the application of this model to the raw data. Test items are individually weighted based on their difficulty level, which is determined by dividing the number of correct responses to the item by the total number of responses to that item, thereby deriving a percentage of correct responses to the item. Each HESI specialty exam and HESI exit exam also provides a conversion score. This score is presented as a percentage that reflects the average weight of all the test items on an exam and the average weight of the test items answered correctly. Therefore, this conversion score is a weighted percentage score that faculty can include as a part of the student's final course grade.

Crocker and Algina[10] identified the basic elements of an exam within the framework of classical test theory as the observed score, the true (universe) score, and the error score (error of measurement). The relationship provided by these scores is described by the formula: observed score equals true score plus error score. Crocker and Algina[10] and Sax[17] asserted that the reduction of systematic and random error is critically important to ensure that obtained scores on tests closely represent the student's true score. All item analysis and reliability calculations regarding HESI exams are based upon this interpretation.

The item analysis data include each test item's difficulty level and discrimination data as expressed by the point biserial correlation coefficient as well as the number of times the test item has been used on an exam. These data are stored for the last administration of the test item as well as for all administrations of the test item (cumulative data). No test item is scored on any HESI exam until it has been piloted and the item analysis data obtained on that item. HESI nurse educators review and revise test items based on the results of pilot testing. The parameters HESI uses to judge the quality of test items include a cumulative difficulty level of no less than 40% and a point biserial correlation coefficient of 0.15 or above. HESI exams that contain 50 test items include five pilot (nonscored) items, and exams that contain 75 or more test items include 10 pilot items.

Position guide: Scrum-half

The scrum-half's basic role is to deliver the ball from the base of the scrum, ruck or maul to spark the backline, but that is too simplistic and ignores hundreds of other key characteristics.

The traditional skills of passing and kicking are obviously important and you need a broad range of those skills.

A scrum-half needs to be able to deliver the ball not just from the base but however it comes at him, whether that is over the head or through the legs.

And kicking is not just all about the traditional box kick. It's little grubbers along the floor, or long punts or quick tap penalties.

Other elements such as defence, organising how the forwards links with the backs, man-management, decision-making, staying on your feet and minimising your time at the bottom of rucks also make up the scrum-half armoury.

But one of the most important attributes of a good scrum-half is a natural instinct and confidence, though sadly these are quite often coached out of players in favour of the basics.

I don't mean you have to be a fantastic public speaker or have that first-on-the-dancefloor confidence. It's about being confident in your understanding of how the team are trying to play and being able to implement those ideas as an individual.

If a scrum-half just shovels the ball out time and again, he isn't a threat and as soon as he's not a threat, the focus of the opposition back row and inside backs goes on the fly-half.

Good scrum-halves like Scotland's Mike Blair and Chris Cusiter and Wales' Dwayne Peel have all the traditional skills but you can't take your eyes off them for a moment because if you do, they're through the gap and gone and they've got the pace to finish.

Having that threat creates more room for their own backline because the opposition back row have to check for a split-second to see what they might have up their sleeves.

But you have to understand when to make breaks and when to pass and that comes from instinct and experience.

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug