Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Nursing TCRN : Trauma Certified Registered Nurse exam Exam Dumps

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Exam Number : TCRN
Exam Name : Trauma Certified Registered Nurse Exam
Vendor Name : Nursing
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TCRN exam Format | TCRN Course Contents | TCRN Course Outline | TCRN exam Syllabus | TCRN exam Objectives

About the TCRN Exam

Clinical Practice: Head and Neck

A. Neurologic trauma

1. Traumatic brain injuries

2. Spinal injuries

B. Maxillofacial and neck traum

1. Facial fractures

2. Ocular trauma

3. Neck trauma

Clinical Practice: Trunk

A. Thoracic trauma

1. Chest wall injuries

2. Pulmonary injuries

B. Cardiac injuries

1. Great vessel injuries

C. Abdominal trauma

1. Hollow organ injuries

2. Solid organ injuries

3. Diaphragmatic injuries

4. Retroperitoneal injuries

D. Genitourinary trauma

E. Obstetrical trauma (pregnant patients)

Clinical Practice: Extremity and Wound

25 A. Musculoskeletal trauma

1. Vertebral injuries

2. Pelvic injuries

3. Compartment syndrome

4. Amputations

5. Extremity fractures

6. Soft- tissue injuries

B. Surface and burn trauma

1. Chemical burns

2. Electrical burns

3. Thermal burns

4. Inhalation injuries

Clinical Practice: Special Considerations

A. Psychosocial issues related to trauma

B. Shock

1. Hypovolemic

2. Obstructive (e.g., tamponade, tension, pneumothorax)

3. Distributive (e.g., neurogenic, septic)

4. Cardiogenic


Continuum of Care

A. Injury prevention

B. Prehospital care

C. Patient safety (e.g., fall prevention)

D. Patient transfer

1. Intrafacility (within a facility, across departments)

2. Interfacility (from one facility to another

E. Forensic issues

1. Evidence collection

2. Chain of custody

F. End- of- life issues

1. Organ/ tissue donation

2. Advance directives

3. Family presence

4. Palliative care

G. Rehabilitation (discharge planning)

Professional Issues 17 A. Trauma quality management

1. Performance improvement

2. Outcomes follow- up and feedback (e.g., referring facilities, EMS)

3. Evidence- based practice

4. Research

5. Mortality/ morbidity reviews

B. Staff safety (e.g., standard precautions, workplace violence)

C. Disaster management (i.e., preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery)

D. Critical incident stress management

E. Regulations and standards



3. Designation/ verifi cation (e.g., trauma center/ trauma systems)

F. Education and outreach for interprofessional trauma teams and the public

G. Trauma registry (e.g., data collection)

H. Ethical issues

D. Critical incident stress management

E. Regulations and standards



3. Designation/ verifi cation (e.g., trauma center/ trauma systems)

F. Education and outreach for interprofessional trauma teams and the public

G. Trauma registry (e.g., data collection)

H. Ethical issues

I. Assessment

A. Establish mechanism of injury

B. Assess, intervene, and stabilize patients with immediate life- threatening conditions

C. Assess pain

D. Assess for adverse drug and blood reactions

E. Obtain complete patient history

F. Obtain a complete physical evaluation

G. Use Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to evaluate patient status

H. Assist with focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) examination

I. Calculate burn surface area

J. Assessment not otherwise specified

II. Analysis

A. Provide appropriate response to diagnostic test results

B. Prepare equipment that might be needed by the team

C. Identify the need for diagnostic tests

D. Determine the plan of care

E. Identify desired patient outcomes

F. Determine the need to transfer to a higher level of care

G. Determine the need for emotional or psychosocial support

H. Analysis not otherwise specified

III. Implementation

A. Incorporate age- specific needs for the patient population served

B. Respond with decisiveness and clarity to unexpected events

C. Demonstrate knowledge of pharmacology

D. Assist with or perform the following procedures:

1. Chest tube insertion

2. Arterial line insertion

3. Central line insertion

4. Compartment syndrome monitoring devices:

a. Abdominal

b. Extremity

5. Doppler

6. End- tidal CO 2

7. Temperature- control devices (e.g., warming and cooling)

8. Pelvic stabilizer

9. Immobilization devices

10. Tourniquets

11. Surgical airway insertion

12. Intraosseous needles

13. Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring devices

14. Infusers:

a. Autotransfusion

b. Fluid

c. Blood and blood products

15. Needle decompression

16. Fluid resuscitation:

a. Burn fluid resuscitation

b. Hypertonic solution

c. Permissive hypotension

d. Massive transfusion protocol (MTP)

17. Pericardiocentesis

18. Bedside open thoracotomy

E. Manage patients who have had the following procedures:

1. Chest tube insertion

2. Arterial line insertion

3. Central line insertion

4. Compartment syndrome monitoring devices:

a. Abdominal

b. Extremity

5. End- tidal CO 2

6. Temperature control devices (e.g., warming and cooling)

7. Pelvic stabilizer

8. Immobilization devices

9. Tourniquets

10. Surgical airway

11. Intraosseous needles

12. ICP monitoring devices

13. Infusers:

a. Fluid

b. Blood and blood products

14. Needle decompression

15. Fluid resuscitation:

a. Burn fluid resuscitation

b. Hypertonic solution

c. Permissive hypotension

d. MTP

16. Pericardiocentesis

F. Manage patients pain relief by providing:

1. Pharmacologic interventions

2. Non pharmacologic interventions

G. Manage patient sedation and analgesia

H. Manage tension pneumothorax

I. Manage burn resuscitation

J. Manage increased abdominal pressure

K. Provide complex wound management (e.g., ostomies, drains, wound vacuumassisted closure [VAC], open abdomen)

L. Implementation not otherwise specified

IV. Evaluation

A. Evaluate patients response to interventions

B. Monitor patient status and report findings to the team

C. Adapt the plan of care as indicated

D. Evaluation not otherwise specified

V. Continuum of care

A. Monitor or evaluate for opportunities for program or system improvement

B. Ensure proper placement of patients

C. Restore patient to optimal health

D. Collect, analyze, and use data:

1. To Excellerate patient outcomes

2. For benchmarking

3. To decrease incidence of trauma

E. Coordinate the multidisciplinary plan of care

F. Continuum of care not otherwise specified

VI. Professional issues

A. Adhere to regulatory requirements related to:

1. Infectious diseases

2. Hazardous materials

3. Verification/ designation

4. Confidentiality

B. Follow standards of practice

C. Involve family in:

1. Patient care

2. Teaching/ discharging planning

D. Recognize need for social/ protective service consults

E. Provide information to patient and family regarding community resources

F. Address language and cultural barriers

G. Participate in and promote lifelong learning related to new developments and clinical advances

H. Act as an advocate (e.g., for patients, families, and colleagues) related to ethical, legal, and psychosocial issues

I. Provide trauma patients and their families with psychosocial support

J. Assess methods continuously to Excellerate patient outcomes

K. Assist in maintaining the performance improvement programs

L. Participate in multidisciplinary rounds

M. Professional issues not otherwise specified

The TCRN exam is for nurses practicing across the continuum of trauma care who want to demonstrate their expertise and knowledge in trauma nursing. BCEN is the only source for trauma care nurses and their employers to gain recognized certification for greater knowledge and performance. Advance your trauma nursing care and career at every critical point in the continuum.

BCENs certification exams are developed by an exam committee of nurses who practice in the specific exams specialty area and represent diverse geography. BCEN partners with a test development company to ensure the exam is psychometrically sound and questions are written in best practice format. Earning a BCEN certification is a national recognition and allows the holder to display the credential as part of their signature.

BCEN exams are based on specialty nursing role delineation studies (RDS). These research studies also known as a practice analysis or job analysis are conducted by exam committees of subject matter experts.

As part of the RDS, survey instruments are distributed to nurses practicing in each specialty area throughout the United States. The survey responses guide the exam committee in determining knowledge relevant to practice. The integrated concepts, cognitive level distribution, and the number of items (questions) specified within each content area are developed by an iterative process resulting in unanimous agreement from the exam committee.

Next, item writers create exam questions and the items are reviewed, revised, and approved by the exam construction and review committee. The items are also repeatedly reviewed throughout the exam development process.

Finally, examinations are delivered by computer at Pearson VUE testing centers. The examinations are administered daily Monday through Friday at the test takers convenience.

Only their practice exams are created by the same organization designing the real exams (thats us).
We have a committee of nurses and emergency professionals who build their practice exams with the goal of helping you succeed.
A BCEN practice exam will help you familiarize yourself with the computer-based format of the real exam.
You will be able to answer questions, then have immediate access to the correct answers, backed up with rationale and references.

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug