Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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ISTQB® Certified Tester Advanced Level - Technical Test Analyst

Explore the role and responsibilities of the technical test analyst and develop your skills at a recognised, advanced level.

Successful completion of the ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation level and a minimum of three years testing experience is recommended.

The Intermediate Certificate may also be helpful but is not required.
Training with a BCS accredited training provider is recommended.



The technical test analysts tasks in risk-based testing

Structure-based testing

Analytical techniques

Quality characteristics for technical testing

Reviews

Test tools and automation



0.1 Purpose of this Document

This syllabus forms the basis for the International Software Testing Qualification at the Advanced
Level for the Technical Test Analyst. The ISTQB® provides this syllabus as follows:

1. To National Boards, to translate into their local language and to accredit training providers.

National Boards may adapt the syllabus to their particular language needs and modify the
references to adapt to their local publications.

2. To exam Boards, to derive examination questions in their local language adapted to the
learning objectives for each syllabus.

3. To training providers, to produce courseware and determine appropriate teaching methods.
4. To certification candidates, to prepare for the exam (as part of a training course or
independently).

5. To the international software and systems engineering community, to advance the profession
of software and systems testing, and as a basis for books and articles.

The ISTQB® may allow other entities to use this syllabus for other purposes, provided they seek and
obtain prior written permission.

0.2 Overview

The Advanced Level is comprised of three separate syllabi:

Test Manager

Test Analyst

Technical Test Analyst

The Advanced Level Overview document [ISTQB_AL_OVIEW] includes the following information:

Business Outcomes for each syllabus

Summary for each syllabus

Relationships between the syllabi

Description of cognitive levels (K-levels)

Appendices

0.3 Examinable Learning Objectives

The Learning Objectives support the Business Outcomes and are used to create the examination for
achieving the Advanced Technical Test Analyst Certification. In general all parts of this syllabus are
examinable at a K1 level. That is, the candidate will recognize, remember and recall a term or
concept. The learning objectives at K2, K3 and K4 levels are shown at the beginning of the pertinent
chapter.

0.4 Expectations

Some of the learning objectives for the Technical Test Analyst assume that basic experience is
available in the following areas:

General programming concepts

General concepts of system architectures

Certified Tester

Advanced Level Syllabus - Technical Test Analyst

International

Software Testing

Qualifications Board

1. The Technical Test Analyst's Tasks in Risk-Based Testing - 30 mins.

Keywords

product risk, risk analysis, risk exam, risk identification, risk level, risk mitigation, risk-based
testing
Learning Objectives for the Technical Test Analyst's Tasks in Risk-Based
Testing

1.3 Risk Assessment

TTA-1.3.1 (K2) Summarize the generic risk factors that the Technical Test Analyst typically needs to
consider

Common Learning Objectives

The following learning objective relates to content covered in more than one section of this chapter.
TTA-1.x.1 (K2) Summarize the activities of the Technical Test Analyst within a risk-based approach
for planning and executing testing



The Test Manager has overall responsibility for establishing and managing a risk-based testing
strategy. The Test Manager usually will request the involvement of the Technical Test Analyst to
ensure the risk-based approach is implemented correctly.

Because of their particular technical expertise, Technical Test Analysts are actively involved in the
following risk-based testing tasks:

Risk identification

Risk exam

Risk mitigation

These tasks are performed iteratively throughout the project to deal with emerging product risks and
changing priorities, and to regularly evaluate and communicate risk status.

Technical Test Analysts work within the risk-based testing framework established by the Test Manager
for the project. They contribute their knowledge of the technical risks that are inherent in the project,
such as risks related to security, system reliability and performance.

1.2 Risk Identification

By calling on the broadest possible demo of stakeholders, the risk identification process is most
likely to detect the largest possible number of significant risks. Because Technical Test Analysts
possess unique technical skills, they are particularly well-suited for conducting expert interviews,
brainstorming with co-workers and also analyzing the current and past experiences to determine
where the likely areas of product risk lie. In particular, the Technical Test Analysts work closely with
their technical peers (e.g., developers, architects, operations engineers) to determine the areas of
technical risk.

Sample risks that might be identified include:

Performance risks (e.g., inability to achieve response times under high load conditions)
Security risks (e.g., disclosure of sensitive data through security attacks)
Reliability risks (e.g., application unable to meet availability specified in the Service Level
Agreement)

Risk areas relating to specific software quality characteristics are covered in the relevant chapters of
this syllabus.

1.3 Risk Assessment

While risk identification is about identifying as many pertinent risks as possible, risk exam is the
study of those identified risks in order to categorize each risk and determine the likelihood and impact
associated with each risk.

Determining the level of risk typically involves assessing, for each risk item, the likelihood of
occurrence and the impact upon occurrence. The likelihood of occurrence is usually interpreted as the
likelihood that the potential problem can exist in the system under test.
The Technical Test Analyst contributes to finding and understanding the potential technical risk for
each risk item whereas the Test Analyst contributes to understanding the potential business impact of
the problem should it occur.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug