Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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    Coronavirus: Tricks to train guide dogs during lockdown

    By Rachel FlintBBC News

    Coronavirus: The volunteers training guide dogs in lockdown

    Navigating busy roads, public transport and trips to the shops are all in a day's work for a guide dog.

    But with the training centre in Wales closed and roads quiet, there are concerns visually impaired people may have to wait longer to get a dog.

    Volunteers, known as boarders, are instead using video lessons to keep training going around the house and garden during the coronavirus lockdown.

    Guide dog instructor Amy John said they were going "above and beyond".

    From when they start their training at about 12 months old, guide dogs live with their boarder and are taken every day to the Guide Dogs Cymru training centre to learn essential skills.

    But when social distancing measures came in, the training centre had to close, leaving it up to the volunteers to try to train the 15 dogs from their living rooms and gardens.

    "They can still go out for their daily walks, or for a free run, and that's been invaluable for the moment," said Amy.

    Clover relaxing with a toy after a hard training session at home

    But with cafes and restaurants closed and less traffic on the roads, Amy said the puppies were not able to get used to many of the daily challenges guide dogs have to face.

    "We take their dogs into shops and cafes, they use public transport regularly to get them used to being on buses, but at the moment all that is completely off," she said.

    Una being taught how to hand touch in her boarder Jenna's home

    Amy and her dog Bryngwyn are making videos of exercises and then sending them to the boarders, who are practising them with the dogs and sending back footage for feedback.

    They may look like games, but the tricks teach essential skills, such as hand touching and putting their heads on seats, which are important to keep their owner safe and provide reassurance.

    "They're so used to going out and about while they are with us, so it's important that they keep up this up, to keep their little minds going," Amy said.

    Clover is trained to wait for 60 seconds before he can eat the treats on his legs

    Near the end of their training, which normally takes 16 weeks, the dogs are "matched" with a visually impaired or blind owner, with factors like the dog's speed taken into account.

    But this has been paused until the lockdown ends.

    "It was a real shame, they did have some dogs that were nearly at the end of their training and were ready to be matched," Amy said.

    An "army" of volunteers are trying to get dogs like Clover ready to start their training during lockdown

    Currently there are 59 visually impaired people on the waiting list for a guide dog in Wales.

    But even with the volunteers' efforts, with dogs unable to practice essential skills like guiding across busy roads and on to trains and buses, owners may have to wait a little longer.

    "It will be challenging for the dogs, it will mean that when they do come back into training with us, and they are able to start training them again, it might just take that little bit longer," Amy said.

    "We will have to work quite hard on to make sure that the dogs are really confident before they are matched with a client."

    It is not just the guide dogs in the making being kept busy during lockdown - some old dogs are being taught new tricks by their owners.

    Heather Worofka from Wrexham is using her time during the lockdown to teach her two-year-old guide dog Victor more skills.

    Heather, 25, who is blind, has made a game using a cardboard box and a carrot, which she is using to try to teach the labradoodle, along with her retired guide dog Una, who she now keeps as a pet.

    "Victor was a bit afraid of the cardboard and Una kept trying to climb into the box," she said.

    "We've also been testing Victor's concentration and obedience in the garden, with my mother holding a squeaky toy and food, but fair play to Victor, he's not distracted."

    Andrea Gordon of Guide Dogs Cymru said while visually impaired people may have to wait longer for their dogs, the efforts of the boarders were making a difference.

    "A significant number of people with sight loss live alone, and the current restrictions can leave them feeling cut off from their usual support networks of friends and family," she said.

    "Many are not online, so Guide Dogs staff are making regular phone calls to check on the well-being of every single service user, helping them to access the practical support they need.

    "We've explained that face-to-face training cannot take place at the moment as they are following government advice on social distancing.

    "As an organisation, they are currently planning for such time as services can safely resume, and their plans are reviewed daily, based on the latest advice from the government."

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    Tom Smith

    Seabiscuit_smith3.km384.jpg

    Seabiscuit_smith3.km384.jpg

    The quiet trainer worked wonders with Seabiscuit. Courtesy: Keeneland-Morgan

    Of all the people associated with Seabiscuit, one of the most mysterious was Tom Smith, Seabiscuit’s trainer, a man who spoke little about his life past or present. He “loitered around the edges of my dreams, in his gray suit and gray felt fedora, watching me, saying nothing,” explained author Laura Hillenbrand. “At times I was frustrated by his reticence. But soon I came to feel that by remaining silent about himself, he was telling me what was important. What mattered about Tom was not what he said, but what he did, and all he did — almost literally — was nurture horses.”

    Quiet HorsemanIn his early years on the frontier, the Native Americans Smith dealt with called him “Lone Plainsman” and white settlers called him “Silent Tom.” Those who bumped up against the man’s persistent silence while he was working with Seabiscuit made up what they couldn’t find out, writing that he had been a bank robber, or a rodeo star, or even a hero in the 19th-century Indian wars. The truth was probably less dramatic.

    Horse ExperienceAs a boy, he took part in the last great western cattle drives. By the age of 13, he was an experienced horse breaker. Later, he hunted deer and mountain lions. For a time, he was the foreman of a sheep ranch. In the prairies, he tamed countless mustangs for the British cavalry’s use in their Boer War campaign. Later, the still-young man took a job as foreman at Colorado’s Unaweep Cattle Range and stayed for 20 years. There he tamed horses, treated their injuries or illnesses, and took care of their daily needs.

    Horse TalkWhen Unaweep was sold in 1921, Smith found work training horses to race. Again and again he took ordinary horses and made them winners. In his soul, he was as much a horse healer as a horse trainer. “Learn your horse,” he said. “Each one is an individual, and once you penetrate his mind and heart, you can often work wonders with an otherwise intractable beast.” Another time he said, “It’s easy to talk to a horse if you understand his language. Horses stay the same from the day they are born until the day they die… They are only changed by the way people treat them.”

    Fortunate MeetingIn 1934, Smith found himself living out of a horse stall at Agua Caliente Race Track in northern Mexico, racing a horse named Oriley, who was providing him a meager income in the depths of the Depression. But Smith’s luck was about to turn. He was sharing his horse stall with a man named Noble Threewit, who was training horses for George Giannini, a good friend of Charles Howard, the California auto magnate turned horse owner. Giannini, visiting his horses, saw how Oriley thrived under Smith’s care and introduced the trainer to Charles Howard, who, acting on instinct, hired him.

    “Get Me That Horse”In 1936, Howard sent Smith east to look for a horse that could make him a player, and in Massachusetts, Smith first set eyes on Seabiscuit. Two months later, the Howards saw Seabiscuit win a race. When they sent Smith to look over the horse, he gave what was, for the tight-lipped trainer, a virtual soliloquy. “Get me that horse,” he told his boss. “He has real stuff in him. I can Strengthen him. I’m positive.” Smith healed the mental wounds caused by too much neglect and too many races. He had a large stall built to accommodate all of Seabiscuit’s companions: a dog, a horse, and a monkey. He let the Thoroughbred, who was practically narcoleptic by horse standards, sleep as late as he wanted.

    A Cult FigureAfter Smith’s success with Seabiscuit, he became a cult figure among horsemen. They wanted to know all his training tricks, including how he mixed liniments or shoed horses. He told his peers that success did not lie in magic potions or secret techniques. “We have a great horse,” he said. “That’s all there is to it. And they tried to use common sense in training him and in racing him.” Smith rarely revealed that much to reporters. He regarded them as intrusive and treated them with disdain. When asked by a reporter to describe Seabiscuit, Smith retorted, “He’s a horse.” Reporters were not so fond of Smith either. After one of Smith’s uncommunicative spells, reporter Jolly Roger sniped, “Some suspect that Tom may have removed his tongue.”

    Continued SuccessSmith saw Seabiscuit through his best racing days and into retirement. He continued to work with Howard until the spring of 1943, when he had back surgery that required a long convalescence. Howard had to replace his talented trainer and the two parted on friendly terms. After his recovery, Smith went to the east Coast to work with Elizabeth Arden Graham, the cosmetics magnate and horse lover. She grew fond of her new trainer. “There’s something about Tom Smith that gives you confidence,” she said.

    A Black MarkIn 1945, at the age of 70, Smith received the only black mark on his career when one of his stable hands was caught spraying a decongestant into the nose of one of the stable’s second-tier horses. New York racing laws forbade giving racehorses medications. Although the decision to use the spray was never tied to Smith, and the dose of the decongestant was deemed insignificant, he was banned from racing for a year, a controversial decision. After the ban was lifted, Graham rehired Smith and he repaid her loyalty by guiding her horse Jet Pilot to victory in the Kentucky Derby.

    An End Without HorsesSmith worked with horses until a stroke debilitated him at age 78, and he was sent to live in a sanatorium. It was the first time in his life that he was separated from his beloved horses. When Tom Smith was buried on a cold day in 1957, few people turned out to honor the talented and quiet horseman.


     




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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug