Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 050-6201-ARCHERASC01
Exam Name : RSA Archer Associate
Vendor Name : RSA
Update : Click Here to Check Latest Update
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050-6201-ARCHERASC01 exam Format | 050-6201-ARCHERASC01 Course Contents | 050-6201-ARCHERASC01 Course Outline | 050-6201-ARCHERASC01 exam Syllabus | 050-6201-ARCHERASC01 exam Objectives


The RSA Archer Associate examination is based on the critical job functions that an individual would typically be expected to perform with competence when providing RSA Archer deployment services.

An RSA Archer Associate is a person who works in a technical support, technical sales, professional services and/or other technical implementation role within RSA, within an RSA Partner organization, or within an organization using RSA Archer.

The major job functions expected of an RSA Archer Associate typically consist of four major areas of job role responsibility:
General knowledge about RSA Archer solutions
Aptitude with managing common RSA Archer application configurations
Familiarity with RSA Archer communication strategies
Understanding the basics RSA Archer access control

An RSA Archer Associate candidate should have completed the RSA Archer 6 Administration I course, or have a minimum of six months experience working with the RSA Archer Platform. Candidates should also have a basic understanding of governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) concepts, as well as RSA Archer solutions areas.

1.0: RSA Archer Solution Knowledge 25 %
2.0: Application Configuration 35 %
3.0: Communication Strategies 25%
4.0: Access Control 15%
Total: 100%

The RSA Archer Associate must have fundamental knowledge of RSA Archer solutions to explain how Archer assists in the maturity of an organizations GRC program.
Content Area
RSA Archer Business Solutions
High-level solution concepts and goals

Domain 2.0: Application Configuration
RSA Archer Associates must understand how to configure fields, applications, dashboards, and workspaces within RSA Archer. Configuring RSA Archer with the end users in mind is an important component for successful user adoption. RSA Archer Associates should also be able to import data into an instance of RSA Archer to assist with data migration from legacy systems.

Content Areas
Application-level configurations
- Data-Driven Events and Workflows
- Layout Objects and User Experience
Field Options
- Required fields
- Calculations
Data Import

Domain 3.0: Communication Strategies
The RSA Archer Associate must understand and be able to configure the various notification types with RSA Archer. The RSA Archer Associate is expected to know how to perform advanced searches within Archer and create statistical reports in order to assist in communicating relevant data in a digestible format.

Content Areas
Subscription Notifications
Advanced Search
- Conducting statistical reports
Report Management
- Charting options
Workspaces and Dashboards

Domain 4.0: Access Control
An RSA Archer Associate is expected to have a fundamental understanding of access control in RSA Archer to ensure the right people see the right data at the right time.

Content Areas
Security Parameters
Access Roles and Groups
Record permission options and page privileges

Exam Preparation
Product Training
Although RSA Archer product training is not a strict requirement in preparation for the RSA Archer Associate Exam, it is highly recommended
.
Product Experience
Many of the areas addressed by the RSA Archer Associate exam will be familiar to the candidate who has worked with the RSA Archer product.

The RSA Archer Associate exam content areas cover a wide range of RSA Archer product functions because an RSA Archer Associate may be called upon to perform deployments, work closely with and educate system administrators and other personnel, and maintain the day-to-day operation of an RSA Archer implementation.

Exam Details
Testing Centers, Locations, and Registration
The RSA Archer Administrator examination is administered by the Pearson VUE organization – an internationally known examination provider. exam centers are located worldwide. Visit the Pearson VUE web site (www.pearsonvue.com/rsa/) and use the Test Center Locator to find a testing facility convenient to you.
You may also use the Pearson VUE site to create a personal login account and register for an exam. The RSA Archer Associate exam code is 050-6201-ARCHERASC01.
Exam Questions
The RSA Archer Associate exam consists of 70 questions to be completed in 85 minutes. The exam consists of multiple-choice, multiple-response, or true/false type questions. The exam is computer-based and closed book – you may not utilize any printed material, personal computers, calculators, cell phones, etc. during the test.
The minimum passing score is 70%. Test results are calculated automatically at the conclusion of the test and testing center personnel can often provide you with an authorized copy of your results before you leave the testing center.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug