Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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SFUSD to dump payroll system

It’s end-of-year giving season—and they have matching funds.

Good afternoon!

SFUSD has spent over $40 million trying to fix the EMPower payroll system that’s underpaid (or just plain not paid) teachers for two years. Now, Joe Eskenazi writes, the district might scrap the software—but only after it’s screwed up teachers’ health insurance, their medical leaves, their retirement plans, their credit–and driven many away from SF schools.

Thieves yanked out 16 ATMs across San Francisco this year — most of them in corner stores, and many in the Mission District. See their map of the six Mission places where ATMs have been stolen since October.

In a more cheery key, have you tried the new crossword from Mission Local? It’s by ML’s tech guru Craig Mautner, with a holiday theme. Keep going till you get the green.

More soon,

Sara

The Latest News SNAP Santa Claus and candy canes are painted on the windows of a building. We’ve got just 20 days left until the end of their fundraising campaign, and we’re 63% of the way there! Thank you to the hundreds of San Franciscans who’ve stepped up their contributions, and to the generous donors who’ve set up matching funds for us. Now they are asking for your help. Mission Local has been consistently ahead of the curve, breaking important stories and winning awards for independent local reporting. Please consider supporting the work of their nonprofit newsroom, so they can keep bringing you the news. Just as you, their readers, depend on us, they depend on you. 

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How one woman's stolen identity exposed a system of exam fraud

By Yvette TanBBC News

Millions have now sat for the most important exam of their lives

This week around 10 million students across China have sat the Gaokao - a college entrance exam which determines their entire future.

Hanging over their heads, though, is the exact revelation that hundreds of other students before them were victim to an identity theft scandal which saw them robbed of their results.

For Chen Chunxiu, it was an exam that could change everything. Doing well in the Gaokao meant the farmer's daughter had a shot of getting into her dream university. Failing meant it would remain just that - a dream.

She failed.

Denied admission to college, she took up various jobs - a factory worker, a waitress - before eventually becoming a kindergarten teacher.

But 16 years later, she found to her shock that she had, in fact, earned a place at the Shandong University of Technology - and enrolled there.

But it hadn't been her. Her score - and in fact, her entire identity - was stolen by a girl whose relatives had pulled strings to make this happen.

Her case is just one of 242 student identity thefts that took place in Shandong province between 2002 and 2009, according to exact media reports.

A shocking tale of systemic cheating

The notoriously hard Gaokao - or "high school exam" - tests school leavers on their Chinese, maths, English and another subject of their choice.

It has been the focal point of the education system since the 1950s, with a break during the Cultural Revolution.

But it's not just an exam. For millions - especially those in less privileged positions - it's the ticket to success and upward mobility.

Failing the Gaokao is seen as bringing shame upon the family

The family of Ms Chen, whose story has been widely covered in China in exact weeks, had high hopes.

Because they lived in poverty and could only afford to fund one child's education, they made her less academically-inclined older brother drop out of school to make way for her. This was rare in rural China, where typically the education of boys has been prioritised over that of girls.

It was with this hope that Ms Chen took the Gaokao in 2004. Back then, university students in China did not receive rejection letters - if you didn't receive an acceptance letter, the assumption was simply that you didn't get in.

So after waiting until September - when the university term usually begins - Ms Chen accepted that no letter was coming and decided to head to work in the city.

Then in May this year, she decided to enrol herself into a course for adults. Entering her details in an official government website, Ms Chen found that it listed her as having enrolled and entered university in 2004 and graduated in 2007.

But the picture shown wasn't her. Slowly but surely, the truth started to emerge - revealing the shocking extent of cheating that had taken place.

According to state news outlet Xinhua, the imposter's uncle - who was a local official - is accused of getting help from a local admissions director, who was able to access Ms Chen's exam information.

Ms Chen had scored 546 out of 750, compared to her imposter, who had scored 303.

The imposter's father then allegedly intercepted Ms Chen's admissions letter at the county post office before it was posted. With help from Ms Chen's high school principal, say reports, they faked an entirely new high school transcript bearing the imposter's details.

The imposter's relatives also worked with a police director and staff from the Shandong University of Technology to ensure the enrolment went through and that a blind eye was turned, it is alleged. Ms Chen - a relatively poor farmer's daughter - did not stand a chance.

The imposter - whose real name is Chen Yanping - then assumed the identity of Ms Chen.

Until today, the imposter's colleagues still know her as Chen Chunxiu, say media reports. Her degree has since been revoked and she has been sacked from her job. A government report says she is still under investigation.

"I want to ask her in person why she stole my identity," the real Ms Chen told China's CCTV in an interview. "You replaced me - what did you expect to happen to me? Are you so selfish?"

Her story has been met with widespread anger: many have questioned the point of working so hard for years for an exam that on the surface, promised equal opportunities for all.

"[Some people] have no idea how important the Gaokao is for those not so well off. Parents work so hard to support their kids... but their way is blocked by those with power," said one person on Weibo.

'What can a farmer do?'

According to Chu Zhaohui, a researcher at China's National Institute of Education Sciences, Gaokao fraud can be divided into two sorts - the kind where where the victim has no idea and the other, where both parties mutually consent to it, perhaps for a fee.

The first category he says, typically involves oversight from more than just one party.

"Enrolment generally involves many parties - schools, examination institutes, enrolment offices, and household management department. So, if there're loopholes in so many links, it can only show that it is... collaborative cheating", Mr Chu told BBC Chinese.

In such cases victims are usually in "low social positions" and hence have little way of fighting back, even if they do eventually find out, he adds, as was the case for Ms Chen's father.

"What can a farmer do?" he asked Chinese media. "If I was powerful, they wouldn't have dared [do this to her]."

Parents wait nervously outside exam sites as their children take the Gaokao

At China's parliament meeting last month, there were calls for college admission identity theft to be criminalised. One delegate said it was "much more harmful than [monetary] theft".

Officials in Shandong say new processes are now in place to make sure such incidents will not happen again.

Students will need to submit their offer letter, identity card, residential certificate and an exam attendance certificate before their admission can be confirmed. University acceptance results will also be published online and sent via text message.

And Prof Cheng Fangping, at Renmin University, told BBC Chinese that as student documents were now largely online it was harder for them to be doctored.

The Ministry of Education has also announced that any students found to be involved in identity theft will not be allowed to enrol in university.

The incident has now been brought up to China's top legislative body

Local authorities have launched an investigation into Chen Chunxiu's case and 46 people have been punished.

Ms Chen is now trying to claim back what should have been her life, and she appealed to be re-admitted to the Shandong university.

After her initial rejection was met with public uproar, the university later said it would "actively strive" to help Ms Chen "realise her wishes".

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug