Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 1D0-571
Exam Name : CIW v5 Security Essentials
Vendor Name : CIW
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Exam Name : CIW Web Security Associate
Exam Code : 1D0-571
Duration : 90 mins
Number of Questions : 62
Passing Score : 76%

The CIW Web Security Associate course teaches you how to secure your network from unauthorized activity. This course teaches you about security principles, such as establishing an effective security policy, and about the different types of hacker activities that you are most likely to encounter. Individuals with these security skills can pursue or advance careers in many aspects of online and network security.

Web Security Associate teaches you how to secure your network from unauthorized activity. This course teaches you about security principles, such as establishing an effective security policy, and about the different types of hacker activities that you are most likely to encounter.
This course identifies security principles and techniques that enable you to stop a hacker by understanding how to implement access control lists, operating system hardening and firewall technology. It also teaches you how to personalize your network security system so you can create a solution that adheres to universal principles, but also conforms to your business needs in responding to specific hacker attacks.
You will learn about authentication procedures, encryption standards and implementations that help ensure proper user authentication. You will also learn about the specific ports and protocols that hackers manipulate, and about direct and indirect ways to protect your network operating systems. Finally, you will learn how to respond to and report hacker activity, engage in proactive detection, and always keep your company's needs in mind.

- What Is Security=>
- Network Security Background
- What Is Security=>
- Hacker Statistics
- The Myth of 100-Percent Security
- Attributes of an Effective Security
- Matrix
- What You Are Trying to Protect
- Who Is the Threat=>
- Security Standards
- Elements of Security
- Security Elements and Mechanisms
- The Security Policy
- Determining Backups
- Encryption
- Authentication
- Specific Authentication Techniques
- Access Control
- Auditing
- Security Tradeoffs and Drawbacks
- Applied Encryption
- Reasons to Use Encryption
- Creating Trust Relationships
- Symmetric-Key Encryption
- Symmetric Algorithms
- Asymmetric-Key Encryption
- One-Way (Hash) Encryption
- Applied Encryption Processes
- Encryption Review
- Types of Attacks
- Network Attack Categories
- Brute-Force and Dictionary Attacks
- System Bugs and Back Doors
- Malware (Malicious Software)
- Social Engineering Attacks
- Denial-of-Service (DOS) Attacks
- Distributed Denial-of-Service
- (DDOS) Attacks
- Spoofing Attacks
- Scanning Attacks
- Man-in-the-Middle Attacks
- Bots and Botnets
- SQL Injection
- Auditing
- exact Networking Vulnerability
- Considerations
- Networking Vulnerability
- Considerations
- Wireless Network Technologies and
- Security
- IEEE 802.11 Wireless Standards
- Wireless Networking Modes
- Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
- Wireless Network Security Problems
- Wireless Network Security
- Solutions
- Site Surveys
- Convergence Networking and
- Security
- Web 2.0 Technologies
- Greynet Applications
- Vulnerabilities with Data at Rest
- Security Threats from Trusted
- Users
- Anonymous Downloads and
- Indiscriminate Link-Clicking
- General Security Principles
- Common Security Principles
- Be Paranoid
- You Must Have a Security Policy
- No System or Technique Stands
- Alone
- Minimize the Damage
- Deploy Companywide Enforcement
- Provide Training
- Use an Integrated Security Strategy
- Place Equipment According to
- Needs
- Identify Security Business Issues
- Consider Physical Security
- Protocol Layers and Security
- TCP/IP Security Introduction
- OSI Reference Model Review
- Data Encapsulation
- The TCP/IP Stack and the OSI
- Reference Model
- Link/Network Access Layer
- Network/Internet Layer
- Transport Layer
- Application Layer
- Protocol Analyzers
- Securing Resources
- TCP/IP Security Vulnerabilities
- Implementing Security
- Resources and Services
- Protecting TCP/IP Services
- Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
- (SMTP)
- Physical Security
- Testing Systems
- Security Testing Software
- Security and Repetition
- Firewalls and Virtual Private
- Networks
- Access Control Overview
- Definition and Description of a
- Firewall
- The Role of a Firewall
- Firewall Terminology
- Firewall Configuration Defaults
- Creating Packet Filter Rules
- Packet Filter Advantages and
- Disadvantages
- Configuring Proxy Servers
- URL Filtering
- Remote Access and Virtual Private
- Networks (VPNs)
- Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

- Define the significance of network security, and identify various elements of an effective security policy, including risk factors, security-related organizations, key resources to secure, general security threat types, access control.
- Define encryption and the encryption methods used in internetworking.
- Use universal guidelines and principles of effective network security to create effective specific solutions.
- Apply security principles and identify security attacks.
- Identify firewall types and define common firewall terminology.
- Plan a firewall system that incorporates multiple levels of protection, including firewall system design, proactive detection, setting traps, security breach response, security alerting organizations.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug