Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 1K0-001
Exam Name : Certified Videoconferencing Engineer (PCVE)
Vendor Name : Polycom
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Exam ID : 1K0-001
Exam Title : Certified Videoconferencing Engineer (PCVE)
Number of Questions : 80
Duration of exam : 90 minutes
Passing Scores : 70%

This video conferencing certification is considered an important element that proves efficiency of the candidate to perform implementation, configuration and Polycom Certified Videoconferencing Engineer (PCVE) certification validates the individuals knowledge of networking models, standards and protocols relevant to videoconferencing.

Both elements of the video engineer certification, verify that the individual has the knowledge and skills required by Polycom to offer support to the customer and end-user, understanding the information that should be gathered when escalating more complex problems.

Any individual with the requisite experience can take the test and if successful, become PCVE certified. Polycom offers a wide range of video conference training sessions to prepare the candidate to pass the PCVE exam for those who are new to videoconferencing and Polycom solutions.

The current exam questions on the Polycom® RealPresence Clariti™ infrastructure components are sourced directly from content covered in the course, Collaboration Infrastructure Installation, Configuration, and Troubleshooting - Part 1 (RPIIT202/PCICT201). This material and the corresponding exam questions are based on the following Polycom software releases:
• Polycom® RealPresence
® Collaboration Server v8.8
• Polycom® RealPresence
® Resource Manager v10.5
• Polycom® RealPresence
® Distributed Media Application™ (DMA®) v10.0.0.3
• Polycom® RealPresence
® Access Director™ 4.2
• Polycom® RealPresence
® Web Suite 2.2

Domain % of Exam
1. Fundamentals 17.5%
2. RealPresence Platform Implementation 27.5%
3. RealPresence Platform Configuration 27.5%
4. RealPresence Platform Troubleshooting 27.5%
Total 100%

The examination contains a total of 80 questions and you will have 90 minutes to complete the examination. A score of 70% or higher is required to pass the exam.
The objectives shown on the following domains are not exhaustive, and other related questions may be included in the examination. The objectives are subject to change without notice.

Domain 1 – Fundamentals
1.1. Recognize an analog signal
• Identify how a signal moves
• Recognize how a signal changes
• Identify how a signal is translated
• Understand how an audio signal is measured
1.2. Identify the difference between an analog and digital signal
• Understand how a digital signal is created, recognizing sampling, compression and pulse code modulation
• Recognize how a digital signal moves
• Identify how a digital signal is translated
1.3. Identify what video resolution is
• Identify ‘high definition resolutions
• Recognize resolutions provided by standard video codecs
1.4 Identify what a standard is, including umbrella standards
1.5 Identify H.323-related protocols and what they are used for
1.6 Identify SIP-related protocols and what they are used for
• Recognize SIP messages
1.7 Identify network communication methods, including
• The responsibilities of the OSI layers in the 7-layer model
• The difference between the OSI and TCP/IP layer models
Domain 2 – RealPresence Platform Implementation
Demonstrate an understanding of the implementation methods for RealPresence Platform
solutions including:
2.1 RealPresence Resource Manager
• Identify and understand the key steps in a Physical deployment
• Identify and understand the key steps in a Virtual deployment
• Understand how the solution is licensed
• Understand deployment provisioning methods
2.2 RealPresence Collaboration Server
• Identify and understand the key steps in a Physical deployment
• Identify and understand the key steps in a Virtual deployment
• Identify different models and capabilities
• Recognize default connection methods
2.3 RealPresence DMA Core
• Identify and understand the key steps in a Physical deployment
• Identify and understand the key steps in a Virtual deployment
• Understand and identify the different deployment considerations
2.4 RealPresence Access Director and DMA Edge
• Identify and understand the key steps in a Physical deployment
• Identify and understand the key steps in a Virtual deployment
• Understand and identify the different deployment considerations
2.5 RealPresence Web Suite
• Identify and understand the key steps in a Virtual deployment
Domain 3 – RealPresence Platform Configuration
Demonstrate an understanding of configuration methods for RealPresence Platform solutions including:
3.1 RealPresence Resource Manager
• Recognize external integration methods and their associated technologies
• Define the licensing model
• Recognize configuration required to configure scheduling
• Identify the device types which can be provisioned
• Understand user roles and associated permissions
• Identify various reports, their contents and usage
3.2 RealPresence Collaboration Server
• Determine the use of system flags in configuration
• Distinguish the difference between restore methods
• Identify resource usage in Continuous Presence and Voice Switched Mode
• Understand user roles and associated permissions
• Recognize functions of entry queues, conference profiles and meeting rooms
3.3 RealPresence DMA Core
• Recognize external integration methods and their associated technologies
• Understand user roles and associated permissions
• Recognize Conference Manager functions
• Identify MCU management techniques
• Identify the differences between scalability, resiliency, and redundancy
3.4 RealPresence Access Director (RPAD) and DMA Edge
• Understand installation behind a 1:1 NAT firewall
• Identify and explain Tunnel Configuration vs a single Edge server installation
• Identify and explain the use of split signaling configuration
3.5 RealPresence Web Suite
• Identify and understand the two Web Suite components and functions
• Review initial Web Suite configuration
Domain 4 – RealPresence Platform Troubleshooting
Demonstrate an understanding of troubleshooting methods for RealPresence Platform solutions
including:
4.1 RealPresence Resource Manager
• Understand common reasons for scheduling failure
• Select correct log types for fault escalation
• Identify gatekeeper registration issues
• Recognize user access and scheduling issues
4.2 RealPresence Collaboration Server
• Recognize basic error modes and how to resolve them
• Select correct log types for fault escalation
• Understand common reasons for call failure
• Select common reasons for unexpected call behavior
4.3 RealPresence DMA Core
• Recognize in-call troubleshooting options
• Understand common reasons for call failure
• Select correct log types for fault escalation
• Recognize integrated network troubleshooting methods
4.4 RealPresence Access Director and DMA Edge
• Recognize in-call troubleshooting options
• Select correct log types for fault escalation
• Understand common reasons for call failure
• Recognize integrated network troubleshooting methods



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug