Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023, PDF Download

MPPSC Syllabus 2023: The Madhya Pradesh Public Service Commission (MPPSC) syllabus consists of the History of MP & India, the Geography of MP & India, the constitutional system, science & technology and general aptitude. download the MPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF and test Pattern here. All interested and eligible aspirants for MPPSC should download the latest MPPSC syllabus and test pattern and align their preparation accordingly.

Apart from the MPPSC syllabus, candidates should be well-acquainted with the MPPSC test pattern to understand the test format, number of sections, total marks, and marking scheme prescribed by the commission. As per the test expert analysis, it is reported that the questions asked in the MPPSC prelims test are usually moderate in nature. Hence, aspirants must be familiar with the MPPSC State Service test Syllabus and create a list of syllabus based on their marks weightage and difficulty level.

In this blog, a detailed MPPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF is compiled, including the MPPSC Prelims test pattern, preparation strategy, and list of important books.

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023

Here is the major overview of the MPPSC Prelims syllabus and test pattern tabulated below for the reference of the candidates aspiring for the upcoming civil service exam.

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023

Exam Conducting Body

Madhya Pradesh Public Service Commission

Exam Name

State Service test 2023

Category

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus and test Pattern 2023

Selection Process

Prelims, Mains, and Interview

Maximum Marks

200

Duration

2 hours for each paper

Negative Marking

No negative marking

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 PDF

Candidates must download the MPPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF from the links shared below to learn about the syllabus that need priority in the preparation. Get the direct link to download the MPPSC Syllabus 2023 PDF for the preliminary exam.

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023-Important Topics

The MPPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF is divided into two papers, i.e., General Studies and General Aptitude Test. Both papers comprise objective-type questions, each carrying 200 marks. Check the topic-wise MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 for all the sections below.

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 for General Studies

The MPPSC General Studies Syllabus PDF is divided into various sections, such as the history of MP & India, the Geography of MP, India, and the World, the constitutional system, science & technology, information and communication technology, etc. Check the detailed MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 for General Studies below.

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 for General Studies

Section

Topics

History, Culture, and Literature of Madhya Pradesh

Contribution of Madhya Pradesh to the freedom movement.

Major-arts and Sculpture of Madhya Pradesh.

Major Tribes and Dialect of Madhya Pradesh.

Major festivals, Polk music, Folk arts and folk literature of Madhya Pradesh.

Important Literator of Madhya Pradesh and their literature.

Religious and tourist places of Madhya Pradesh.

History of India

Major features, Events, and administrative, Social, and Economic Systems of Ancient and Medieval India.

Social and Religious reform movements in the 19th and 20th century.

Independence Struggle and Indian National Movement for Freedom

Integration and Reorganization of India after Independence.

Geography of Madhya Pradesh

Forest, Forest Produce, Wildlife. Rivers, Mountains and Mountain ranges of Madhya Pradesh.

Climate of Madhya Pradesh.

Natural and Mineral Resources of Madhya Pradesh.

Transports in Madhya Pradesh.

Major Irrigation and Electrical Projects in Madhya Pradesh.

Agriculture, Animal husbandry, and Agriculture based industries in Madhya Pradesh.

Geography of World and India

Physical Geography Physical features and Natural regions.

Natural Resources: Forest, Mineral resources, Water, Agriculture, Wildlife, National Parks/Sanctuaries/Safari.

Social Geography:- Population related, demography (Population growth, Sex Ratio, Literacy, and Economic activities)

Economic Geography: Natural and Human resources (Industry; Modes of Transport)

Continents/Countries/Oceans/Rivers/Mountains of the world.

Conventional and Non-Conventional Energy Resources.

Constitutional System of Madhya Pradesh

Constitutional System of Madhya Pradesh (Governor, Council of Ministers, Legislative Assembly, High Court)

Three Tier System of Panchayati Raj and Urban Administration in Madhya Pradesh

Economy of Madhya Pradesh

Demography and Census of Madhya Pradesh

Economic Development of Madhya Pradesh

Major Industries of Madhya Pradesh, etc.

Constitution, Government, and Economy of India

Government India Act 1919 and 1935.

Constituent Assembly.

Union Executive, President and Parliament.

Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Citizens and Directive Principles of State Policy.

Constitutional Amendments.

Supreme Court and Judicial System.

Indian Economy, Industrial Development and Foreign Trade, Import and Export.

Financial Institutions- Reserve Bank of India, Nationalised Banks, Security and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), National Stock Exchange (NSE), Non-Banking Financial Institutions.

Science and Technology

Basic Principles of Science.

Important Indian Scientific Research Institutions and their Achievements, Satellite and Space Technology.

Environment and Biodiversity.

Ecological System.

Nutrition, Food and Nutrient.

Human Body.

Agricultural Product Technology.

Food Processing.

Health Policy and Programmes.

Pollution, Natural Disasters and Management.

Current International and National Affairs

Important Personalities and Places.

Major Events.

Important Sports Institutes, Sports Competitions and Awards of India and Madhya Pradesh.

Information and Communication Technology

Electronics, Information and Communication Technology.

Robotics, Artificial Intelligence and Cyber Security.

E-Governance.

Internet and Social Networking Sites.

E-commerce.

National and Regional Constitutional/Statutory Bodies

Election Commission of India.

State Election Commission.

Union Public Service Commission.

Madhya Pradesh Public Service Commission.

Comptroller and Auditor General.

NITI Aayog.

Human Rights Commission.

Women Commission.

Child Protection Commission.

Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission.

Backward class Commission.

Information Commission.

Vigilance Commission.

National Green Tribunal.

Food Preservation Commission etc.

MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 for General Aptitude Test

The MPPSC General Aptitude Test Syllabus PDF is divided into various sections, such as comprehension, logical reasoning & analytical ability, general mental ability, basic numeracy, decision making, etc. Check the detailed MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023 for the General Aptitude Test below.

  • Comprehension.
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills.
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability.
  • Decision-making and problem-solving.
  • General mental ability.
  • Basic numeracy (number and their relations, order of magnitude, etc-Class X level). Data Interpretation (charts, graphs, table, data, sufficiency, etc-Class X level).
  • Hindi Language Comprehension Skill (Class X level).
  • MPPSC Prelims test Pattern 2023

    The MPPSC prelims examination consists of two papers i.e. General Studies and General Aptitude test and each paper will be of 2 hours of duration. Check the details below for the MPPSC prelims test pattern 

  • The MPPSC Prelims test comprises objective-type multiple-choice questions.
  • There are two papers in the MPPSC state service prelims test pattern i.e., General Studies and General Aptitude Test.
  • The test duration for each paper shall be 2 hours.
  • There shall be no negative marking for incorrect answers in the MPPSC Prelims exam.
  • MPPSC Prelims test Pattern 2023

    Subject

    Maximum Marks

    Duration

    General Studies

    200

    2 hours

    General Aptitude Test

    200

    2 hours

    How to Cover MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023?

    MPPSC State Service test is one of the most popular competitive exams in Madhya Pradesh. Many candidates apply for this prelims exam, but only a few can ace it with a well-planned strategy and the use of the right study material. Hence, analyzing the MPPSC syllabus is crucial to cover all the syllabus and their sub-topics. Here are the expert-recommended tips and tricks to crack the MPPSC State Service test 2023.

  • Check the MPPSC Prelims syllabus and test pattern carefully and prioritize higher-weightage syllabus in the study plan.
  • Get your hands on the best MPPSC prelims books and study materials to build conceptual clarity and learn core syllabus in a clear and defined manner.
  • Attempt mock tests and MPPSC previous year's question papers to get insights into the nature and difficulty level of syllabus asked in the exam.
  • Revise all the syllabus regularly to avoid forgetting any important concept on the test day.
  • Best Books to Cover MPPSC Prelims Syllabus 2023

    Candidates should pick the finest MPPSC prelims books based on the revised test requirements, trends, and format. This will help them to build a strong grip on the syllabus specified in the MPPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF. Check the expert-recommended MPPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF below.

  • Indian Polity (4 & 5edition) by M. Laxmikant
  • Madhya Pradesh Ek Parichaya by McGraw Hill Publication
  • Fast track objective Arithmetic by Rajesh Verma
  • Spectrum for Modern Indian History by Rajiv Ahir
  • Quantitative Aptitude for competitive test by RS Agarwal
  • A new approach to reasoning verbal, non-verbal & Analytical by Arihant Publication
  • Indian Yearbook by GOI Publication
  • An Introduction to Madhya Pradesh General Knowledge by Sonali Bansal
  • Also Read,


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug