Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 1Y0-312
Exam Name : Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 7 Advanced Administration
Vendor Name : Citrix
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Exam Code : 1Y0-312
Exam Name : Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 7 Advanced Administration (CCP-V)
Exam Duration : 90 minutes
Number of Questions : 71
Passing Score : 64%

Exam Topics, Syllabus and Contents
----------------------------------
Architecture Overview - Determine whether the number and sizing of the Citrix StoreFront components are appropriate for a production environment.
- Determine whether the number and sizing of the Citrix Gateway components are appropriate for a production environment.
- Determine whether the number and sizing of the Citrix infrastructure components are appropriate for a production environment.
- Determine whether the number and sizing of machines hosting HDX sessions is meeting the needs of a production environment.
Manage a Virtual Apps and Desktops Environment with Multiple Locations - Determine how an FMA Zone architecture can be used in an environment with multiple resource locations.
- Determine how to configure and manage VDA Registration in a multi-zone environment.
- Determine how to use zone preference settings.
- Determine how to configure Optimal Gateway Routing in a production environment.
- Determine how to configure Subscription Store synchronization for a given scenario.
Implement Backups and Disaster Recovery - Determine how to perform backups of key components and data in a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to translate requirements from a disaster recovery plan into an action plan in a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to fail over a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment to a disaster recovery environment, and later restore the production environment.
Implement Advanced Authentication Methods - Determine how one-time passwords can be used with RADIUS authentication in a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to implement smart card authentication in a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to implement ADFS and SAML authentication in a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
Improve App and Data Security - Determine how to prevent jailbreak attacks by managing user assignments
- Determine how to minimize the impact of attacks.
Secure Machines Running the Virtual Delivery Agent - Determine how to Encrypt VDA communications with TLS and how to enhance OS security through image management.
- Determine how to use GPOs and Citrix Policies to lock down machines running VDAs.
Advanced Troubleshooting - Determine how to use various tools to troubleshoot a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to use basic PowerShell commands to get information about a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to troubleshoot StoreFront issues for a given scenario.
- Determine how to troubleshoot Citrix Gateway issues for a given scenario.
- Determine how to validate FMA services and SQL connection health in a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
- Determine how to troubleshoot VDA registration issues for a given scenario.
- Determine how to troubleshoot common HDX connection issues for a given scenario.
App Layering and Creating the Layers - Determine how App layering components communicate.
- Determine how to create an OS Layer.
- Determine how to create a Platform Layer.
- Determine how to create an App Layer.
- Determine how to create an Elastic App Layer.
- Determine how to create User Layers.
- Determine how a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops image deployment changes when using Citrix App Layering.
Deploy a Layered Image using Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops - Determine how to create an App Layering template.
- Determine how a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops image deployment changes when using Citrix App Layering.
Explore Layer Priority and Maintain an App Layering Environment - Determine how layer priority affects the composition of layered images.
- Determine how to update different types of layers.
- Determine how to maintain and update the App Layering environment.
- Determine additional App Layering considerations and how to locate additional information as needed.
Workspace Environment Management (WEM) Administration - Determine how to deploy the components of a Workspace Environment Management (WEM) solution.
- Determine how to perform general administration of WEM in a given scenario.
Use WEM to Centralize Environment Management, Optimize Performance and Secure Environments - Determine how to manage user resources with WEM in a given scenario.
- Determine how to manage user profiles using WEM in a given scenario.
- Determine how to use various WEM Transformer features in a given scenario.
- Determine how to optimize machine performance using WEM.
- Determine how user logon times are optimized using WEM.
- Determine how to use WEM to increase the security of a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment.
Migrate and Upgrade WEM - Determine how to migrate user environment management to WEM in a given scenario.
- Determine how to upgrade a WEM deployment in a given scenario.
- Determine how to implement redundancy in a WEM deployment.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug