Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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UPSC Syllabus 2024: IAS Prelims and Mains exam Syllabus

UPSC Syllabus 2024: Check the latest UPSC IAS Syllabus. Get the complete UPSC 

IAS Syllabus for Prelims & Mains 2024 exam preparation in detail

UPSC Syllabus 2024: UPSC has recently released its UPSC exam Calendar 2024 and as per the calendar the UPSC IAS prelim is scheduled to be conducted tentatively on May 26, 2024 and for which notification will be released on February 14, 2024. It is high time for beginners to start preparing for the 2024 exams.

UPSC Syllabus 2024: Overview

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is the recruitment body that selects candidates for various Group A and B services. 

UPSC Syllabus serves as a blueprint for the exams for IAS Officers, IPS Officers, etc. UPSC Syllabus outlines the Topics and subjects for the candidates that can be asked in the examination.

UPSC Syllabus 2024: exam Pattern

The UPSC Syllabus exam pattern has been divided into two stages, i.e., Prelims and Mains, followed by Interviews.

Career Counseling UPSC IAS Prelims Syllabus 2024

The UPSC IAS Prelims Paper is an objective type paper consisting of two papers i.e. General Studies I and General Studies II (CSAT)

UPSC IAS Prelims General Studies I

The UPSC IAS Prelims syllabus of General Studies (GS) Paper I consists of subjects such as History, Economy, Polity, Geography, Science and Tech, Current Affairs and more. The GS Paper I aims to check the knowledge of candidates on various aspects of the world.

UPSC IAS Prelims General Studies II

The UPSC IAS Prelims syllabus of General Studies (GS) Paper II generally known as CSAT consists of subjects such as studying Comprehension, Logical Reasoning, Quantitative Aptitude and more. The CSAT paper is generally focused to check the candidates, comprehension skills and thinking ability. The CSAT paper is also qualifying in nature in which candidates need to score a minimum of 33% marks.

UPSC IAS Mains Syllabus 2024

The Mains paper is a written examination which consists of 9 papers which include an essay, general studies paper and an optional subject.

UPSC IAS Mains Essay 2024 

The UPSC IAS Essay is also known as Paper I where candidates are required to write an essay on the given topic. The candidates will be asked to write and organise their thoughts in an orderly manner. The more score will be given to candidates who have written in a precise and effective form,

UPSC IAS Mains General Studies 2024

The UPSC IAS Mains General Studies consists of 4 papers on General Studies i.e. General Studies I, General Studies II, General Studies III, General Studies IV. The Topics which are covered in each paper are listed below:

  • GS Paper I consists of Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society
  • GS Paper II consists of Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations
  • GS Paper III consists of Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management
  • GS Paper IV consists of Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude
  • UPSC IAS Mains Optional Subjects

    Candidates can choose one optional subject from a list provided by the UPSC. The syllabus for optional subjects varies depending on the subject chosen. There will be two paper from the optional chosen. Candidates can find the list of optional subjects provided by UPSC:

  • Agriculture
  • Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
  • Anthropology
  • Botany
  • Chemistry
  • Civil Engineering
  • Commerce and Accountancy
  • Economics
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Geography
  • Geology
  • History
  • Law
  • Management
  • Mathematics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Medical Science
  • Philosophy
  • Physics
  • Political Science and International Relations
  • Psychology
  • Public Administration
  • Sociology
  • Statistics
  • Zoology
  • UPSC IAS English paper

    The UPSC IAS Main English paper includes a variety of Topics that assess the candidates' comprehension, analytical, and writing skills. The Topics include essay writing, precise writing, literary comprehension etc.

    UPSC IAS Mains Language Paper

    The candidates need to select one of the languages mentioned in the Indian Schedule. This paper is qualifying in nature. The list of languages is given below

  • Assamese
  • Bengali
  • English
  • Gujarati
  • Hindi
  • Kannada
  • Maithili
  • Malayalam
  • Manipuri
  • Marathi
  • Punjabi
  • Sanskrit
  • Sindhi
  • Tamil
  • Telugu
  • Urdu
  • UPSC IAS Interview 2024

    The UPSC IAS exam's final phase is the interview. The UPSC announces the final results after the conclusion of the interview phase. There is no defined syllabus for the interview, the questions majorly consist of current issues and personality checks

    UPSC preparation strategy for beginners 

    Once you understand the UPSC exam Pattern, it is time to make a study plan so that maximum time can be utilised for preparation. They have written a dedicated article on some of the best tips after talking to many experts so that it will be helpful for you in making an effective plan. Read here about the preparation strategy for beginners

    NCERT Books for UPSC

    NCERT books are considered the backbone of a candidate's UPSC preparation. These books are published by the government of India and are widely recognized for their quality and accuracy. NCERT books hold immense significance in the field of UPSC preparation. These books are designed by experts in respective subjects, ensuring a comprehensive and well-structured approach to learning. The content provided in NCERT books is aligned with the UPSC syllabus, making them an invaluable resource for aspirants. Moreover, the language used in NCERT books is reader-friendly, simplifying complex Topics and aiding in better comprehension. Check out their article on which NCERT Books to refer for UPSC preparation

    UPSC IAS Prelims exam Analysis 2023

    Before starting preparation for UPSC IAS 2024, it is good to go through the exam analysis of the previous so that you can have a better understanding of the difficulty level that is being asked in the previous year's exam

    UPSC IAS Previous Year Cut Off Marks

    Read out their article on cut off marks released by UPSC for different categories, checking the cut off marks will deliver you an idea that what approximate marks you need to maintain while preparing and giving a mock to be on the safer side and crack UPSC IAS on the first attempt.

    UPSC IAS Previous Year Question Paper

    There are various benefits of practicing UPSC's previous year's question paper including familiarity with the difficulty level, nature and level of questions asked, and important Topics which are repeatedly asked over the past years as well as checking where your preparation stands. Solving the UPSC question paper pdf with solutions will help you to prepare the strategy based on the latest trend, curriculum, and actual exam format and help you to understand the difficulty level and Topics from which questions are often asked in the exam.

    5 Best No-Medical-Exam Life Insurance Companies

    Final Verdict

    All of the companies on this list represent good options for getting life insurance without a medical exam. All are A+ rated or better for financial strength and have received fewer complaints than expected when averaged over a three-year period. If you don’t need more than $3 million in coverage and are 50 or younger, any company on this list could be a good fit. But if you’re over 50 and looking for a death benefit of more than $1 million, you can rule out Nationwide. If you’re over 60, your only option for high-coverage no-medical-exam life insurance is Penn Mutual. And regardless of your age, Penn Mutual is your only option if you need a death benefit greater than $5 million and don’t want to take an exam.

    If you’re looking for term coverage, try Penn Mutual or Pacific Life; for dividends, Penn Mutual or Guardian. If you want free living benefits, look to Nationwide. And if you’d like a wellness plan with your life insurance, John Hancock delivers.

    How To Choose a No-Medical-Exam Life Insurance Policy

    Term life insurance is designed to last for a specific number of years, such as 30, and then expire. Permanent life insurance is designed to last your entire lifetime, and is therefore more expensive than term. You may also want to combine term and permanent policies to have a higher-coverage term policy during your working years or while you’re raising a family, and then a lower-coverage permanent policy that will kick in once the term coverage expires.

    Term policies let you choose the length of the term (a 40-year term is the longest we’ve seen), and often provide the option to convert your term coverage to permanent. Permanent policies have a cash value, which may be accessed via withdrawals and loans.

    Once you’ve figured out your budget and the general type of coverage you need, you should begin to get quotes from financially stable companies with track records of good customer satisfaction. 

    If you want a no-exam life insurance policy, it may be helpful to know that most of the 91 companies they reviewed offer some sort of policy that doesn’t require an exam. You’re best off first finding a good company (or a few you like), and then seeing what kind of policy you can get without an exam. This list and their rankings of the best life insurance companies are both good places to start. And be sure to compare multiple quotes for no-exam life insurance because some policies are cheaper than others (depending on the type of no-exam underwriting used).

    A number of companies offer life insurance policies without requiring a medical exam, but you’ll generally be eligible for the lowest premiums with those that ask thorough health questions on the application. 

    More Ratings of Top Life Insurance Companies Frequently Asked Questions
  • Most any type of policy is eligible for no-exam underwriting. It used to be that if you wanted to skip the exam, only low-coverage insurance policies were available to you. These are still available and sold as burial or funeral insurance, or guaranteed-issue policies. But now, insurers have a number of sophisticated means by which to collect health and other information, so they don’t need to rely on your exam. Plus, it costs them money to administer it and time to receive and review the results. No-exam underwriting allows insurance carriers to issue life policies faster, which is often good for both the customer and the insurer.

    So whether you’re looking for term or permanent coverage, a whole life policy or an indexed universal life policy, it’s available somewhere without a medical exam. But not all companies offer no-exam life insurance on all or even any of their policies, so you’ll need to do some research to find one that does. (The companies in the list above are an excellent start.) The one caveat is that not everyone is eligible for no-exam underwriting. If you have health issues that raise red flags for the insurance company, you may be required to undergo a medical screening to complete your application.

  • Yes, if it's a policy with a cash value. No-exam life insurance policies are just like regular life insurance policies. The only difference is that a medical screening is not required during the application process. Once approved, the policy functions just as it would had you taken an exam. So if you’ve purchased a permanent life insurance policy that builds a cash value, that cash value will be available to you, subject to any surrender period or other standard policy conditions.

  • Choosing the best life insurance policy for you depends on your life insurance needs. How much coverage do you need? (Ideally, you’ll get enough to pay off your debts and replace your income, at the very least.) How long do you need it for? Your needs may change once your kids are grown and your home is paid off, for instance. The next question to ask is, how much premium can you afford?

  • Methodology

    In order to compile their list of the best no-medical-exam life insurance companies, they developed a comprehensive life insurance methodology. They started off by researching what consumers want from life insurance companies, and for that, they looked to third-party consumer studies, including J.D. Power’s 2021 U.S. Life Insurance New Business Study and the 2021 Insurance Barometer Study, by Life Happens and LIMRA.

    With those findings in mind, they gathered more than 50 data points on 91 life insurance companies, including ratings for financial strength, customer satisfaction, and customer complaints, as well as information about years in business, online tools, no-exam options, dividends, maximum issue ages, and available riders. 

    Our review process gave preference to companies with solid financials, few customer complaints, high no-exam coverage amounts available, high-issue ages for no-exam coverage, and a broad product portfolio. Companies received ratings boosts for online resources, including online quotes and live chat, and included living benefit riders. They ranked each company according to the following categories and weights.

  • 28%: No-med-exam availability and features
  • 20% Policy types and features
  • 15%: Financial stability 
  • 15%: Customer satisfaction
  • 13%: Ease of application
  • 9%: Online resources
  • To finalize their list, they compared individual offerings between top companies by considering ratings from third parties such as AM Best and J.D. Power, and delving deeper into product specifics—including cost and the availability of dividends. They used this research to determine the best no-medical-exam life insurance companies.

    UPSC Syllabus: A Comprehensive Guide to Cracking the Civil Services Exam

    The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examination is one of the most prestigious and competitive exams in India.

    UPSC Syllabus: A Comprehensive Guide to Cracking the Civil Services Exam

    UPSC Syllabus


    Aspirants from all corners of the country dream of joining civil services to serve the nation and bring about positive change. However, cracking the UPSC exam requires meticulous preparation and a thorough understanding of the UPSC syllabus.

    Understanding the UPSC Syllabus

    The UPSC syllabus is vast and covers a wide range of subjects, testing the candidates' knowledge, analytical abilities, and decision-making skills. It is divided into three stages: the Preliminary Exam, the Main Exam, and the Personality Test (Interview).

    Preliminary Exam

    The first stage of the UPSC exam is the Preliminary Exam, commonly known as the Prelims. It comprises two papers: General Studies Paper I and General Studies Paper II (Civil Services Aptitude Test or CSAT).

    General Studies Paper I

    This paper covers diverse subjects, including History, Geography, Polity, Economy, Science, and Current Affairs. Aspirants must focus on important historical events, Indian and World Geography, Indian Polity and Constitution, Economic concepts, and current affairs.

    General Studies Paper II (CSAT)

    The CSAT evaluates candidates' comprehension, reasoning, analytical, and decision-making skills. Aspirants must excel in areas such as studying Comprehension, Logical Reasoning, Quantitative Aptitude, and Data Interpretation.

    Main Exam

    Those who clear the Prelims move on to the Main Exam. This stage is more extensive and comprises nine papers, of which two are qualifying in nature: English and any Indian language.

    Essay Writing

    Candidates are required to write two essays, each carrying 125 marks. They must demonstrate their articulation, critical thinking, and presentation skills.

    General Studies Papers

    The General Studies papers include subjects like Indian Heritage and Culture, History, Geography, Polity, Governance, Social Justice, Technology, and Ethics.

    Optional Subject

    Aspirants have the option to choose one subject from a list of disciplines, such as Literature, History, Geography, Economics, etc. They must develop an in-depth understanding of their chosen subject.

    Personality Test (Interview)

    Candidates who qualify for the Main exam are called for the Personality Test. It assesses their personality traits, communication skills, and overall suitability for a career in civil services.

    Tips for Cracking the UPSC Exam

    Cracking the UPSC exam is a daunting task, but with the right approach, it can be achieved. Here are some essential tips to enhance your chances of success:

    Start Early and Be Consistent

    Begin your preparation well in advance and create a study schedule that includes regular revisions and mock tests.

    Analyze Previous Years' Question Papers

    Understanding the pattern and types of questions asked in previous years can deliver you valuable insights and help you strategize your preparation.

    Read Newspapers and Stay Updated

    Stay updated with current affairs by studying newspapers and magazines regularly. Focus on both national and international news.

    Practice Answer Writing

    Answer writing is a crucial skill for the UPSC exam. Practice writing detailed and coherent answers to Improve your presentation.

    Seek Guidance and Mentorship

    Enrol in reputable coaching institutes or seek guidance from experienced mentors who can provide valuable tips and insights.


    The UPSC syllabus is a comprehensive guide to cracking the civil services examination. It demands perseverance, dedication, and a passion for serving the nation. By understanding the syllabus, formulating a strategic study plan, and staying committed to your goals, you can embark on a successful journey towards becoming a civil servant.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug