Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 2V0-41.20
Exam Name : Professional VMware NSX-T Data Center (VCP-NV 2020)
Vendor Name : Vmware
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2V0-41.20 exam Format | 2V0-41.20 Course Contents | 2V0-41.20 Course Outline | 2V0-41.20 exam Syllabus | 2V0-41.20 exam Objectives


EXAM NUMBER : 2V0-41.20
PRODUCT : VMware NSX-T Data Center 3.0
EXAM LANGUAGE : English
Associated Certification : VCP-NV 2021
Duration : 135 minutes
Number of Questions : 70
Passing Score : 300
Format : Single and Multiple Choice, Proctored

The Professional VMware NSX-T Data Center 3.0 exam (2V0-41.20) which leads to VMware Certified Professional – Network Virtualization 2021 certification is a 70-item exam, with a passing score of 300 using a scaled method. Candidates are given an appointment time of 130 minutes, which includes an adequate time to complete the exam for non-native English speakers.

The minimally qualified candidate should have 6 months or more experience installing, configuring, managing, and troubleshooting NSX-T Data Center 3.0 solutions. Candidates should be knowledgeable of the features, functions, and architectures of NSX-T. They should have at least 6 months hands-on experience with Linux and KVM. They should have 1 year of experience working in IT and with VMware vSphere and its command line. The successful candidate will likely hold additional industry-recognized IT certifications or accreditation. The MQC should have all the knowledge contained in the exam sections listed below.

Exam Sections
VMware exam blueprint sections are now standardized to the seven sections below, some of which may NOT be included in the final exam blueprint depending on the exam objectives.
Section 1 – Architecture and Technologies
Section 2 – Products and Solutions
Section 3 – Planning and Designing
Section 4 – Installing, Configuring, and Setup
Section 5 – Performance-tuning, Optimization, and Upgrades
Section 6 – Troubleshooting and Repairing
Section 7 – Administrative and Operational Tasks

Sections Included in this Exam
Section 1 – VMware vSphere Architectures and Technologies - There are no testable objectives for this section
Section 2 – VMware Products and Solutions
Objective 2.1 Describe the VMware Virtual Cloud Network Vision
Objective 2.2 Outline the solutions of NSX Portfolio
Objective 2.3 List the use-cases for NSX Data Center
Objective 2.4 Explain the value proposition and features of NSX
Objective 2.5 Identify Physical and Virtual Infrastructure Requirements for NSX-T Data Center
Objective 2.6 Describe NSX Architecture and Component sub-systems
Objective 2.7 Differentiate the functionalities of Management Plane, Control Plane, Data Plane, and Consumption Planes
Objective 2.8 Define NSX-T Data Center Terminology
Objective 2.9 Describe the Logical Switching Architecture and Features
Objective 2.10 Describe the Logical Routing Architecture and Features
Objective 2.11 Describe the NSX-T Data Center Network Services
Objective 2.12 Explain the Edge Architecture and Features
Objective 2.13 Explain the NSX Security Architecture and Features
Objective 2.14 Identify the supported integration platforms of NSX-T (Containers, Public Cloud, Private Cloud, Hybrid Cloud, DevOps tools, 3rd Party etc.)
Section 3 – There are no testable objectives for this section.
Section 4 – Installing, Configuring, and Setting Up a VMware vSphere Solution
Objective 4.1 Outline the installation and preparation workflow of NSX-T Data Center
Objective 4.2 Deploy and Configure NSX-T Data Center Environment
Objective 4.3 Configure Hypervisor Networking [vSphere and KVM] for NSX-T Data Center
Objective 4.4 Configure and manage Logical Switching Features
Objective 4.5 Configure and manage Logical Routing Features
Objective 4.6 Configure NSX-T Edge Nodes and Edge Cluster
Objective 4.7 Configure NSX-T Data Center Network Services [Layer-3]
Objective 4.8 Configure NSX Security Features
Objective 4.9 Configure Service Insertion with NSX-T Data Center
Section 5 – Performance-tuning and Optimizing Upgrades – There are no testable objectives for this section
Section 6 – Troubleshooting and Repairing
Objective 6.1 Identify the default log file locations of NSX-T Data Center components
Objective 6.2 Compare and Contrast Tools Available for Troubleshooting
Objective 6.3 Troubleshoot Common NSX Installation/Configuration Issues
Objective 6.4 Troubleshoot Common NSX Component Issues
Objective 6.5 Troubleshoot Common Connectivity Issues
Objective 6.6 Troubleshoot Common physical infrastructure Issues
Section 7 – Administrative and Operational Tasks in a VMware vSphere Solution
Objective 7.1 List Operations Tasks in a VMware NSX Environment (syslog, backup/restore etc.)
Objective 7.2 Configure roles and permissions for NSX-T Data Center environment
Objective 7.3 Generate Log bundles
Objective 7.4 Monitor a VMware NSX Implementation



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug