Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 300-410
Exam Name : Implementing Cisco Enterprise Advanced Routing and Services (ENARSI)
Vendor Name : Cisco
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Exam: Implementing Cisco Enterprise Advanced Routing and Services
The Implementing Cisco Enterprise Advanced Routing and Services v1.0 (ENARSI 300-410) test is a 90-minute test associated with the CCNP Enterprise and Cisco Certified Specialist - Enterprise Advanced Infrastructure Implementation certifications. This test certifies a candidate's knowledge for implementation and troubleshooting of advanced routing technologies and services including Layer 3, VPN services, infrastructure security, infrastructure services, and infrastructure automation. The course, Implementing Cisco Enterprise Advanced Routing and Services, helps candidates to prepare for this exam.

35% 1.0 Layer 3 Technologies
1.1 Troubleshoot administrative distance (all routing protocols)
1.2 Troubleshoot route map for any routing protocol (attributes, tagging, filtering)
1.3 Troubleshoot loop prevention mechanisms (filtering, tagging, split horizon, route poisoning)
1.4 Troubleshoot redistribution between any routing protocols or routing sources
1.5 Troubleshoot manual and auto-summarization with any routing protocol
1.6 Configure and verify policy-based routing
1.7 Configure and verify VRF-Lite
1.8 Describe Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
1.9 Troubleshoot EIGRP (classic and named mode)
1.9.a Address families (IPv4, IPv6)
1.9.b Neighbor relationship and authentication
1.9.c Loop-free path selections (RD, FD, FC, successor, feasible successor, stuck in active)
1.9.d Stubs
1.9.e Load balancing (equal and unequal cost)
1.9.f Metrics
1.10 Troubleshoot OSPF (v2/v3)
1.10.a Address families (IPv4, IPv6)
1.10.b Neighbor relationship and authentication
1.10.c Network types, area types, and router types
1.10.c (i) Point-to-point, multipoint, broadcast, nonbroadcast
1.10.c (ii) Area type: backbone, normal, transit, stub, NSSA, totally stub
1.10.c (iii) Internal router, backbone router, ABR, ASBR
1.10.c (iv)Virtual link
1.10.d Path preference
1.11 Troubleshoot BGP (Internal and External)
1.11.a Address families (IPv4, IPv6)
1.11.b Neighbor relationship and authentication (next-hop, mulithop, 4-byte AS, private AS, route refresh, synchronization, operation, peer group, states and timers)
1.11.c Path preference (attributes and best-path)
1.11.d Route reflector (excluding multiple route reflectors, confederations, dynamic peer)
1.11.e Policies (inbound/outbound filtering, path manipulation)
20% 2.0 VPN Technologies
2.1 Describe MPLS operations (LSR, LDP, label switching, LSP)
2.2 Describe MPLS Layer 3 VPN
2.3 Configure and verify DMVPN (single hub)
2.3.a GRE/mGRE
2.3.b NHRP
2.3.c IPsec
2.3.d Dynamic neighbor
2.3.e Spoke-to-spoke
20% 3.0 Infrastructure Security
3.1 Troubleshoot device security using IOS AAA (TACACS+, RADIUS, local database)
3.2 Troubleshoot router security features
3.2.a IPv4 access control lists (standard, extended, time-based)
3.2.b IPv6 traffic filter
3.2.c Unicast reverse path forwarding (uRPF)
3.3 Troubleshoot control plane policing (CoPP) (Telnet, SSH, HTTP(S), SNMP, EIGRP, OSPF, BGP)
3.4 Describe IPv6 First Hop security features (RA guard, DHCP guard, binding table, ND inspection/snooping, source guard)
25% 4.0 Infrastructure Services
4.1 Troubleshoot device management
4.1.a Console and VTY
4.1.b Telnet, HTTP, HTTPS, SSH, SCP
4.1.c (T)FTP
4.2 Troubleshoot SNMP (v2c, v3)
4.3 Troubleshoot network problems using logging (local, syslog, debugs, conditional debugs, timestamps)
4.4 Troubleshoot IPv4 and IPv6 DHCP (DHCP client, IOS DHCP server, DHCP relay, DHCP options)
4.5 Troubleshoot network performance issues using IP SLA (jitter, tracking objects, delay, connectivity)
4.6 Troubleshoot NetFlow (v5, v9, flexible NetFlow)
4.7 Troubleshoot network problems using Cisco DNA Center assurance (connectivity, monitoring, device health, network health)



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug