Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 300-435
Exam Name : Automating Cisco Enterprise Solutions (ENAUTO)
Vendor Name : Cisco
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300-435 exam Format | 300-435 Course Contents | 300-435 Course Outline | 300-435 exam Syllabus | 300-435 exam Objectives


Exam Description
The Automating and Programming Cisco Enterprise Solutions v1.0 (ENAUTO 300-435) exam is a 90-minute exam associated with the CCNP Enterprise, Cisco Certified DevNet Professional, and Cisco Certified DevNet Specialist - Enterprise Automation and Programmability certifications. This exam tests a candidate's knowledge of implementing Enterprise automated solutions, including programming concepts, Python programming, APIs, controllers and automation tools. The course, Implementing Cisco Enterprise Automation Solutions, helps candidates to prepare for this exam.

10% 1.0 Network Programmability Foundation
1.1 Utilize common version control operations with git (add, clone, push, commit, diff, branching, merging conflict)
1.2 Describe characteristics of API styles (REST and RPC)
1.3 Describe the challenges encountered and patterns used when consuming APIs synchronously and asynchronously
1.4 Interpret Python scripts containing data types, functions, classes, conditions, and looping
1.5 Describe the benefits of Python virtual environments
1.6 Explain the benefits of using network configuration tools such as Ansible and Puppet for automating IOS XE platforms
10% 2.0 Automate APIs and Protocols
2.1 Identify the JSON instance based on a YANG model
2.2 Identify the XML instance based on a YANG model
2.3 Interpret a YANG module tree generated per RFC8340
2.4 Compare functionality, benefits, and uses of OpenConfig, IETF, and native YANG models
2.5 Compare functionality, benefits, and uses of NETCONF and RESTCONF
20% 3.0 Network Device Programmability
3.1 Implement device management and monitoring using NetMiko
3.2 Construct a Python script using ncclient that uses NETCONF to manage and monitor an IOS XE device
3.3 Configure device using RESTCONF API utilizing Python requests library
3.4 Utilize Ansible to configure an IOS XE device
3.5 Configure a subscription for model driven telemetry on an IOS XE device (CLI, NETCONF, and RESTCONF)
3.6 Compare publication and subscription telemetry models
3.6.a Periodic / cadence
3.6.b On-change
3.7 Describe the benefits and usage of telemetry data in troubleshooting the network
3.8 Describe Day 0 provisioning methods
3.8.a iPXE
3.8.b PnP
3.8.c ZTP
20% 4.0 Cisco DNA Center
4.1 Compare traditional versus software-defined networks
4.2 Describe the features and capabilities of Cisco DNA Center
4.2.a Network assurance APIs
4.2.b Intent APIs
4.2.c Multivendor support (3rd party SDKs)
4.2.d Events and notifications
4.3 Implement Cisco DNA Center event outbound webhooks
4.4 Implement API requests for Cisco DNA Center to accomplish network management tasks
4.4.a Intent APIs
4.4.b Command Runner APIs
4.4.c Site APIs
4.5 Implement API requests for Cisco DNA Center to accomplish network management tasks using these APIs
4.5.a Network discovery and device APIs
4.5.b Template APIs (Apply a template)
4.6 Troubleshoot Cisco DNA Center automation process using Intent APIs
20% 5.0 Cisco SD-WAN
5.1 Describe features and capabilities of Cisco SD-WAN vManage Certificate Management APIs
5.2 Implement a Python script to perform API requests for Cisco SD-WAN vManage Device Inventory APIs to retrieve and display data
5.3 Construct API requests for Cisco SD-WAN vManage Administration APIs
5.4 Implement a Python script to perform API requests for Cisco SD-WAN vManage Configuration APIs to modify Cisco SD-WAN fabric configuration
5.5 Construct API requests for Cisco SD-WAN vManage Monitoring APIs (Including real-time)
5.6 Troubleshoot a Cisco SD-WAN deployment using vManage APIs
20% 6.0 Cisco Meraki
6.1 Describe features and capabilities of Cisco Meraki
6.1.a Location Scanning APIs
6.1.b MV Sense APIs
6.1.c External Captive Portal APIs
6.1.d WebHook Alert APIs
6.2 Create a network using Cisco Meraki APIs
6.3 Configure a network using Cisco Meraki APIs
6.4 Implement a Python script for Cisco Meraki Alert WebHooks



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug