Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 300-910
Exam Name : Implementing DevOps Solutions and Practices using Cisco Platforms (DEVOPS)
Vendor Name : Cisco
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300-910 DEVOPS
Certifications: Cisco Certified DevNet Professional, Cisco Certified DevNet Specialist - DevOps
Duration: 90 minutes

Exam Description
The Implementing DevOps Solutions and Practices Using Cisco Platforms v1.0 (DEVOPS 300-910) test is a 90-minute test associated with the Cisco Certified DevNet Professional and Cisco Certified DevNet Specialist - DevOps certifications. This test tests a candidate's knowledge of DevOps practices as it pertains to deployment automation that enables automated configuration, management, and scalability of cloud microservices and infrastructure processes on Cisco platforms. The course, Implementing DevOps Solutions and Practices Using Cisco Platforms, helps candidates prepare for this exam.

20% 1.0 CI/CD Pipeline
1.1 Describe characteristics and concepts of build /deploy tools such as Jenkins, Drone, or Travis CI
1.2 Identify the sequence, components, and integrations to implement a CI/CD pipeline for a given scenario
1.3 Troubleshoot issues with a CI/CD pipeline such as code-based failures, pipeline issues, and tool incompatibility
1.4 Identify tests to integrate into a CI/CD pipeline for a given scenario
1.5 Identify release deployment strategy (canary, rollbacks, and blue/green) for a given scenario
1.6 Diagnose code dependency management issues including API, tool chain, and libraries
15% 2.0 Packaging and Delivery of Applications
2.1 Identify the steps to containerize an application
2.2 Identify steps to deploy multiple microservice applications
2.3 Evaluate microservices and container architecture diagrams based on technical and business requirements (security, performance, stability, and cost)
2.4 Identify safe handling practices for configuration items, application parameters, and secrets
2.5 Construct a Docker file to address application specifications
2.6 Describe the usage of golden images to deploy applications
20% 3.0 Automating Infrastructure
3.1 Describe how to integrate DevOps practices into an existing organization structure
3.2 Describe the use of configuration management tools to automate infrastructure services such as Ansible, Puppet, Terraform, and Chef
3.3 Construct an Ansible playbook to automate an application deployment of infrastructure services
3.4 Construct a Terraform configuration to automate an application deployment of infrastructure services
3.5 Describe the practice and benefits of Infrastructure as Code
3.6 Design a pre-check validation of the network state in a CI/CD pipeline for a given scenario
3.7 Design a pre-check validation of the application infrastructure in a CI/CD pipeline for a given scenario
3.8 Describe the concepts of extending DevOps practices to the network for NetDevOps
3.9 Identify the requirements such as memory, disk I/O, network, and CPU needed to scale the application or service
15% 4.0 Cloud and Multicloud
4.1 Describe the concepts and objects of Kubernetes
4.2 Deploy applications to a Kubernetes cluster
4.3 Utilize objects of Kubernetes to build a deployment to meet requirements
4.4 Interpret the pipeline for continuous delivery of a Drone configuration file
4.5 Validate the success of an application deployment on Kubernetes
4.6 Describe method and considerations to deploy an application to multiple environments such as multiple cloud providers, high availability configurations, disaster recovery configurations, and testing cloud portability
4.7 Describe the process of tracking and projecting costs when consuming public cloud
4.8 Describe benefits of infrastructure as code for repeatable public cloud consumption
4.9 Compare cloud services strategies (build versus buy)
20% 5.0 Logging, Monitoring, and Metrics
5.1 Identify the elements of log and metric systems to facilitate application troubleshooting such as performance issues and streaming telemetry logs
5.2 Implement a log collection and reporting system for applications
5.2.a aggregate logs from multiple related applications
5.2.b search capabilities
5.2.c reporting capabilities
5.3 Troubleshoot a distributed application using AppDyanmics with Application Performance Monitoring
5.4 Describe the principles of chaos engineering
5.5 Construct Python scripts that use APIs to accomplish these tasks
5.5.a build a monitoring dashboard
5.5.b notify Webex Teams space
5.5.c responding to alerts and outages
5.5.d creating notifications
5.5.e health check monitoring
5.5.f opening and closing incidents
5.6 Identify additional application requirements to provide visibility into application health and performance
5.7 Describe Kubernetes capabilities related to logging, monitoring, and metrics
5.8 Describe the integration of logging, monitoring and alerting in a CI/CD pipeline design
10% 6.0 Security
6.1 Identify methods to secure an application and infrastructure during production and testing in a CI/CD pipeline
6.2 Identify methods to implement a secure software development life cycle



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug