Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 300-915
Exam Name : Developing Solutions Using Cisco IoT and Edge Platforms (DEVIOT)
Vendor Name : Cisco
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300-915 exam Format | 300-915 Course Contents | 300-915 Course Outline | 300-915 exam Syllabus | 300-915 exam Objectives


Exam Code : 300-915
Exam Name : Developing Solutions Using Cisco IoT and Edge Platforms - DEVIOT
Duration : 90 Min.

Exam Description Developing Solutions Using Cisco IoT & Edge Platforms v1.0 (DEVIOT 300-915) is a 90-minute exam that is associated with the DevNet Professional Certification. This exam tests a candidate's IoT application development knowledge as it pertains to Cisco IoT edge compute and network architecture including Cisco IOx and Cisco EFM, IoT Data Visualization, and security methods. The course, Developing Solutions using Cisco IoT & Edge Platforms, helps candidates to prepare for this exam.

1.0 Cisco Network IoT Architecture 20%
1.1 Interpret the data flow of a topology that includes:
1.1.a gateways
1.1.b access points
1.1.c firewalls (including industrial firewalls)
1.1.d routers
1.1.e switches
1.2 Describe the purpose, functionality, and use of these operational technology components:
1.2.a PLCs and operations
1.2.b embedded microcontrollers
1.2.c RTOS systems
1.2.d Cisco interfaces (serial, sensors, I2C, and USC)
1.2.e communication protocols (BLE, WiFi, Ethernet, and LoraWAN)
1.2.f communication standards (DDS, OPC UA, MT Connect, and Open PLC)
1.3 Describe IoT requirements related to networking and device configuration policies (including configuring IOS commands to enable IOx, port and protocol needs of an application, and security and prioritization of data)
1.4 Construct a workflow to connect a sensor
1.5 Troubleshoot sensor connectivity issue

2.0 Compute and Analysis 10%
2.1 Compare the characteristics, capabilities, and use of edge devices to generic compute devices
2.2 Determine the use of cloud or specific edge devices for a given application scenario
2.3 Analyze application resource usage information to determine any required changes to the application or hardware
2.4 Construct a Python script to deploy an application at the edge using FND and GMM APIs
2.5 Troubleshoot application resources usage and network connectivity issues when using FND and GMM APIs
2.6 Determine data handling procedure and action to take with edge data based on business requirements

3.0 Cisco IOx IoT Software 20%
3.1 Describe the capabilities of a Cisco IOx application
3.2 Troubleshoot a Dockerfile for Cisco IOx
3.3 Describe the process to build applications for Cisco IOx
3.4 Identify the troubleshooting approaches for a deployed application for Cisco IOx
3.5 Describe the process to deploy an Cisco IOx application into a CI/CD on platforms (such as FND, Kinetic GMM, or Directly to IOx)
3.6 Construct a Cisco IOx application to meet requirements given SDK documentation

4.0 Cisco Edge Data IoT Software 15%
4.1 Describe characteristics of edge data services
4.2 Analyze a DSLink (extracting data from a sensor)
4.3 Identify the process to send data to a public cloud provider

5.0 Open Source IoT Software 10%
5.1 Evaluate the flow and processing of data from sensor to cloud in a given scenario
5.2 Compare characteristics and usage of MQTT and AMQP
5.3 Determine the output from given messages and subscription details
5.4 Identify broker QoS level for messages in a given scenario
5.5 Diagnose issues with broker deployment and application connection

6.0 IoT Data Visualization 10%
6.1 Describe the characteristics and capabilities of data visualization tools (such as Freeboard, Grafanna, and Kibana)
6.2 Identify the data visualization technique to meet business requirements
6.3 Interpret visualized data

7.0 Security 15%
7.1 Identify methods to implement a secure software development life cycle
7.2 Identify methods to secure an application and infrastructure during production and testing in a CI/CD pipeline
7.3 Describe risk management (including security challenges in IT and operational technology)
7.4 Describe the concepts related to confidentiality, integrity, and availability
7.5 Describe the capabilities of:
7.5.a ISE and ISE integration
7.5.b pxGRID
7.5.c AMP for Endpoints proxy
7.5.d Cisco Tetration
7.5.e StealthWatch (Enterprise and Cloud)
7.5.f Cisco Cloudlock



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug