Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Cisco 350-801 : Implementing Cisco Collaboration Core test Dumps

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Exam Number : 350-801
Exam Name : Implementing Cisco Collaboration Core Technologies (CLCOR)
Vendor Name : Cisco
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350-801 test Format | 350-801 Course Contents | 350-801 Course Outline | 350-801 test Syllabus | 350-801 test Objectives


350-801 CLCOR
Certifications: CCNP Collaboration, CCIE Collaboration, Cisco Certified Specialist - Collaboration Core
Duration: 120 minutes

This test tests your knowledge of implementing core collaboration technologies, including:
- Infrastructure and design
- Protocols, codecs, and endpoints
- Cisco IOS XE gateway and media resources
- Call Control
- QoS
- Collaboration applications

Exam Description
The Implementing Cisco Collaboration Core Technologies v1.0 (CLCOR 350-801) test is a 120-minute test associated with the CCNP Collaboration, CCIE Collaboration, and Cisco Certified Specialist - Collaboration Core certifications. This test tests a candidate's knowledge of implementing core collaboration technologies including infrastructure and design, protocols, codecs, and endpoints, Cisco IOS XE gateway and media resources, Call Control, QoS, and collaboration applications. The course, Implementing Cisco Collaboration Core Technologies, helps candidates to prepare for this exam.

20% 1.0 Infrastructure and Design
1.1 Describe the key design elements of the following, pertaining to the Cisco Collaboration architecture as described in the SRND/PA
1.1.a Licensing (Smart, Flex)
1.1.b Sizing
1.1.c Bandwidth
1.1.d High availability
1.1.e Disaster recovery
1.1.f Dial plan
1.1.g Security (certificates, SRTP, TLS)
1.1.h QoS
1.2 Describe the purpose of Edge devices in the Cisco Collaboration architecture such as Expressway and Cisco Unified Border Element
1.3 Configure these network components to support Cisco Collaboration solutions
1.3.a DHCP
1.3.b NTP
1.3.c CDP
1.3.d LLDP
1.3.e LDAP
1.3.f TFTP
1.3.g Certificates
1.4 Troubleshoot these network components in a Cisco Collaboration solution
1.4.a DNS (A/AAA, SRV, Reverse Pointer Record (PTR))
1.4.b NTP
1.4.c LDAP integration on Cisco Unified Communications Manager
1.5 Explain these components to support Cisco Collaboration solutions
1.5.a SNMP
1.5.b DNS
20% 2.0 Protocols, Codecs, and Endpoints
2.1 Troubleshoot these elements of a SIP conversation
2.1.a Call set up and tear down
2.1.b SDP
2.1.c DTMF
2.2 Identify the appropriate collaboration codecs for a given scenario
2.3 Configure codec negotiations
2.4 Deploy SIP endpoints
2.4.a Manual
2.4.b Self provisioning
2.4.c Bulk Administration Tool (BAT)
2.5 Troubleshoot collaboration endpoints
15% 3.0 Cisco IOS XE Gateway and Media Resources
3.1 Configure these voice gateway elements
3.1.a DTMF
3.1.b Voice translation rules and profiles
3.1.c Codec preference list
3.1.d Dial peers
3.2 Configure ISDN PRI/BRI
3.3 Troubleshoot ISDN PRI/BRI
3.4 Configure and verify the MGCP
3.5 Identify the appropriate media resources for a given scenario (hardware and software)
25% 4.0 Call Control
4.1 Describe the Cisco Unified Communications Manager digit analysis process
4.2 Implement toll fraud prevention on Cisco Unified CM
4.3 Configure globalized call routing in Cisco Unified CM
4.3.a Route patterns (traditional and +E.164 format)
4.3.b Translation patterns
4.3.c Standard local route group
4.3.d Transforms
4.3.e SIP route patterns
4.4 Describe Mobile and Remote Access (MRA)
10% 5.0 QoS
5.1 Describe problems that can lead to poor voice and video quality
5.1.a Latency
5.1.b Jitter
5.1.c Packet loss
5.1.d Bandwidth
5.2 Describe the QoS requirements for these application types (voice and video)
5.3 Describe the class models for providing QoS on a network
5.3.a 4/5 Class model
5.3.b 8 Class model
5.3.c QoS Baseline model (11 Class)
5.4 Describe the purpose and function of these DiffServ values as it pertains to collaboration
5.4.a EF
5.4.b AF41
5.4.c AF42
5.4.d CS3
5.4.e CS4
5.5 Describe QoS trust boundaries and their significance in LAN-based classification and marking
5.6 Describe and determine location-based CAC bandwidth requirements
5.7 Configure and verify LLQ (class map, policy map, service policy)
10% 6.0 Collaboration Applications
6.1 Configure Cisco Unity Connection mailbox and MWI
6.2 Configure Cisco Unity Connection SIP integration options to call control
6.3 Describe Cisco Unity Connection call handlers
6.4 Describe Cisco Unified IM&P protocols and deployment
6.4.a XMPP
6.4.b High availability
6.5 Deploy Cisco Jabber on premises



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug