Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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352-001 test Format | 352-001 Course Contents | 352-001 Course Outline | 352-001 test Syllabus | 352-001 test Objectives


Exam Name : CCDE Design Written Exam
Exam Number : 352-001 CCDE
Exam Duration : 120 minutes
Questions in test : 90-110
Passing Score : Variable (750-850 / 1000 Approx.)
Exam Registration : PEARSON VUE
Real Questions : Cisco 352-001 Real Questions
VCE practice questions : Cisco Certified Design Expert Practice Test

Layer 2 Control Plane 24%
1 Describe fast convergence techniques and mechanisms
a) Down detection
b) Interface dampening 2 Describe loop detection and mitigation protocols
a) Spanning tree types
b) Spanning tree tuning techniques 3 Describe mechanisms that are available for creating loop-free topologies
a) REP
b) Multipath
c) Switch clustering
d) Flex links
e) Loop detection and mitigation
4 Describe the effect of transport mechanisms and their interaction with routing protocols over different types of links 5 Describe multicast routing concepts 6 Describe the effect of fault isolation and resiliency on network design
a) Fault isolation
b) Fate sharing
c) Redundancy
d) Virtualization
e) Segmentation
Layer 3 Control Plane 33%
1 Describe route aggregation concepts and techniques
a) Purpose of route aggregation
b) When to leak routes / avoid suboptimal routing
c) Determine aggregation location and techniques 2 Describe the theory and application of network topology layering
a) Layers and their purposes in various environments
3 Describe the theory and application of network topology abstraction
a) Purpose of link state topology summarization
b) Use of link state topology summarization 4 Describe the effect of fault isolation and resiliency on network design or network reliability
a) Fault isolation
b) Fate sharing
c) Redundancy
5 Describe metric-based traffic flow and modification
a) Metrics to modify traffic flow
b) Third-party next hop
6 Describe fast convergence techniques and mechanisms
a) Protocol timers
b) Loop-free alternates
7 Describe factors affecting convergence
a) Recursion
b) Microloops
c) Transport
8 Describe unicast routing protocol operation [OSPF, EIGRP, ISIS, BGP, and RIP] in relation to network design
a) Neighbor relationships
b) Loop-free paths
c) Flooding domains and stubs
d) iBGP scalability
9 Analyze operational costs and complexity
a) Routing policy
b) Redistribution methods
10 Describe the interaction between routing protocols and topologies
11 Describe generic routing and addressing concepts
a) Policy-based routing
b) NAT
c) Subnetting
d) RIB-FIB relationships
12 Describe multicast routing concepts
a) General multicast concepts
b) Source specific
c) MSDP/anycast
d) PIM
e) mVPN
13 Describe IPv6 concepts and operation
a) General IPv6 concepts
b) IPv6 security
c) IPv6 transition techniques
Network Virtualization 15%
1 Describe Layer 2 and Layer 3 tunnelling technologies
a) Tunnelling for security
b) Tunnelling for network extension
c) Tunnelling for resiliency
d) Tunnelling for protocol integration
e) Tunnelling for traffic optimization
2 Analyze the implementation of tunnelling
a) Tunnelling technology selection
b) Tunnelling endpoint selection
c) Tunnelling parameter optimization of end-user applications
d) Effects of tunnelling on routing
e) Routing protocol selection and tuning for tunnels
Design Considerations 18%
1 Analyze various QoS performance metrics
a) Application requirements
b) Performance metrics
2 Describe types of QoS techniques
a) Classification and marking
b) Shaping
c) Policing
d) Queuing
3 Identify QoS strategies based on customer requirements
a) DiffServ
b) IntServ
4 Identify network management requirements
5 Identify network application reporting requirements
6 Describe technologies, tools, and protocols that are used for network management
7 Describe the reference models and processes that are used in network management, such as FCAPS, ITIL®, and TOGAF
8 Describe best practices for protecting network infrastructure
a) Secure administrative access
b) Control plane protection
9 Describe best practices for protecting network services
a) Deep packet inspection
b) Data plane protection
10 Describe tools and technologies for identity management
11 Describe tools and technologies for IEEE 802.11 wireless deployment
12 Describe tools and technologies for optical deployment
13 Describe tools and technologies for SAN fabric deployment
Evolving Technologies v1.1 10%
1 Cloud
a) Compare and contrast public, private, hybrid, and multicloud design considerations
a) [i] Infrastructure, platform, and software as a service (XaaS)
a) [ii] Performance, scalability, and high availability
a) [iii] Security implications, compliance, and policy
[iv] Workload migration
b) Describe cloud infrastructure and operations
b) [i] Compute virtualization (containers and virtual machines)
b) [ii] Connectivity (virtual switches, SD-WAN and SD-Access)
c) [iii] Virtualization functions (NFVi, VNF, and L4/L6)
d) [iv] Automation and orchestration tools (CloudCenter, Cisco DNA-center, and Kubernetes)
2 Network programmability (SDN)
a) Describe architectural and operational considerations for a programmable network
a) [i] Data models and structures (YANG, JSON and XML)
a) [ii] Controller based network design (policy driven configuration and northbound/ southbound APIs)
a) [iii] Configuration management tools (agent and agentless) and version control systems (Git and SVN)
a) [iv] Device programmability (gRPC, NETCONF and RESTCONF) 3 Internet of things (IoT)
a) Describe architectural framework and deployment considerations for IoT
a) [i] IoT technology stack (IoT Network Hierarchy, data acquisition and flow)
b) [ii] IoT standards and protocols (characteristics within IT and OT environment)
c) [iii] IoT security (network segmentation, device profiling, and secure remote)



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug