Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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A-level exam quiz - how many questions can you answer?

ANYONE who's completed their A-levels - whether it's this year or many moons ago - is probably keen to see the back of the exam hall for good.

But if you took a test now, how would you get on? 

We've compiled a list of questions from exam awarding body AQA from one of its specimen Law exam papers for A-level. 

It's one of the few exams that is constructed as multiple choice, and so even though law might not be the most popular exam among A-level students, it's the most feasible for a test like this. 

See how many you can answer and let us know how you got on in the comments! 

'Marquinhos is Ballon d'Or level' - Tuchel questions why PSG defender wasn't recognised by FIFA

The German coach believes his Brazilian defender was unfairly snubbed from the honours awarded by the governing body

PSG star Marquinhos is at "Ballon d'Or level" and should have been recognised by FIFA with a position in the FIFPro Men's World XI for the last year, according to his coach Thomas Tuchel.

The club captain made a successful return from injury in PSG's goalless Ligue 1 draw with Lille after being absent from the last two matches with a hip problem.

Despite being a part of a PSG side that won all four French domestic competitions last season and finished runners-up in the Champions League, Marquinhos missed out on a place in the FIFPro World XI.

Tuchel feels the 26-year-old's performance against Lille showed that he was among the best in the world.

"Tonight, Marquinhos is Ballon d'Or level," Tuchel said to reporters after the game.

"I don't understand his absence in the FIFA XI of the year."

Despite the return of Marquinhos, PSG were hit by three more injuries in the match against Lille, with Presnel Kimpembe, Alessandro Florenzi and Layvin Kurzawa suffering issues.

Tuchel already had to contend with the absence of Neymar and Mauro Icardi, while Kylian Mbappe had fitness problems and could only come on as a late substitute.

The German warned that this season's demanding schedule will "kill the players" with his squad unable to recover properly between games.

"You already know my opinion, they are going to kill the players," Tuchel told Telefoot.

"We are always allowed to play at nine o'clock [in the evening]. They lack the rhythm to eat, sleep, recover. But it will continue like this.

"Today, they miss Neymar, Kylian, Mauro, Juan [Bernat]. Are they surprised? No. Three new players are injured now. Well done."

Speaking after his injury return, Marquinhos was pleased with the point earned by his team but insisted they could have been better in attack.

"We were able to control the match but they could have been more dangerous," the skipper told Telefoot. "We had to be well organised. 

"This is an important point for us, but they are always looking for victory."

Like offseason, Orioles’ trade deadline evokes questions of whether they could have done more | ANALYSIS

TORONTO — The Orioles’ affinity for water has not stretched to the front office. Unlike the Bird Bath section at Camden Yards, it’s no splash zone.

For the second time in nine months, Baltimore entered a period of roster fluctuation seen as a team capable of making big moves, with payroll flexibility and the sport’s deepest minor league system seemingly giving the Orioles the capability to add any player available both this past offseason and ahead of Tuesday’s trade deadline. In both cases, the Orioles made improvements to their roster but not to the level they appeared to have the opportunity to.


For the cost of four of their top 30 prospects, the Orioles brought in Oakland Athletics reliever Shintaro Fujinami on July 19 and St. Louis Cardinals starter Jack Flaherty minutes ahead of the trade deadline. The pitchers, each set to be a free agent after this season, reinforce a rotation and bullpen loaded with inexperienced arms approaching unprecedented workloads. The Orioles would have earned criticism for not making these moves, but they are not necessarily worthy of praise.

The deal for Flaherty cost Baltimore its Nos. 13, 15 and 16 prospects as ranked by Baseball America, with executive vice president and general manager Mike Elias making the most aggressive move of his tenure after previously parting with only one top 20 prospect in his nearly five years leading baseball operations. In discussing the swap, Elias mentioned multiple times that Flaherty “bolsters” the Orioles’ pitching staff, citing his experience and previous high inning totals. But this season marks the first time the 27-year-old has crossed the 100-inning threshold since 2019, when he finished fourth in National League Cy Young Award voting.


In the four seasons since, he has a 4.12 ERA, and his 4.43 mark this year is not all that different from the 4.47 figure Baltimore’s rotation has collectively posted in 2023. Of course, the Orioles’ front office uses far more than that metric to evaluate pitchers, but Elias himself acknowledged this deal didn’t necessarily net a premier starter.

This is the first season starting pitcher Jack Flaherty has crossed the 100-inning threshold since 2019, when he finished fourth in National League Cy Young Award voting.

“I don’t think there’s a ton of hierarchy in this rotation,” Elias said, “and I think that he goes in right with the best in their group.”

To his credit, Elias said the Orioles “took some very big swings,” though they whiffed. Reports linked the club to more tantalizing rotation options, including the top two in last year’s American League Cy Young Award voting in Justin Verlander and Dylan Cease. Elias noted that other teams were “fixated” on certain Baltimore prospects, particularly those ranked in leaguewide top 100 lists and some who the Orioles weren’t interested in moving.

“We were prepared to deploy every corner of their farm system within reason to make acquisitions,” he said.

Fujinami is electric but volatile, and even with his acquisition, Elias also pursued another reliever ahead of the deadline. Amid frequent usage, All-Star setup man Yennier Cano’s effectiveness has waned of late, adding to the hefty volume that’s been demanded of All-Star closer Félix Bautista. By not landing one more arm to support that pair, Elias was instead left hoping a collection of injured pitchers will be able to provide reinforcements down the stretch.

That group includes Mychal Givens, one of a handful of additions Elias made this offseason aiming to “supplement” but “not block” the members of the Orioles’ young core, as he put it at December’s winter meetings. In addition to Givens, they signed starter Kyle Gibson and infielder Adam Frazier to one-year deals, with each providing solid but not standout performances while supplying veteran presences. They traded a low-level prospect to the New York Mets for backup catcher James McCann and brought in starter Cole Irvin and a minor league pitcher from Oakland for infield prospect Darell Hernaiz, the highest-ranked prospect Elias had moved before Tuesday. Neither McCann nor Irvin has had much success with Baltimore, but they’ve provided depth. Not to be lost, a secondary focus of Baltimore’s offseason was hoarding left-handed corner bats, an effort that has resulted in Ryan O’Hearn’s breakout season.

It’s difficult now to judge that modest approach, with Baltimore holding the AL’s best record and a 1 1/2-game lead over the Tampa Bay Rays in the AL East, which Elias called “probably the toughest division in baseball history.” He said the team’s goal, in terms of what’s directly in front of it, is to win that division, an elevation of his offseason declaration of hoping for a playoff berth in any form.

But there are questions about how this group will hold up down the stretch, especially on the pitching side, and wonders of whether the front office did enough, in the winter and summer, to fortify it. The desire is to play not only in October, but also to the end of it.


“We think this team has what it takes to go deep,” Elias said. It’s a welcome vote of confidence after, this time last year, he effectively said he didn’t believe the Orioles had a high likelihood of reaching the playoffs despite being only a couple of games out of a wild-card spot. Baltimore traded away slugger Trey Mancini and All-Star closer Jorge López at this time last season.

Both at that deadline and before and after this one, Elias emphasized that his job is about balancing the present and future. By his estimation, the past two weeks saw the Orioles trade away four future major leaguers should Easton Lucas, César Prieto, Drew Rom and Zack Showalter stay healthy, with Elias further making the point that being a buyer means “you tend to kind of lose every trade” given the years of control the team forfeits. Still, the Orioles left the deadline with all of their top dozen prospects, a group largely featuring players in Triple-A, if not the majors.

“The system’s set up where you can’t keep everyone that you draft and sign and develop and sign international, and they decided to utilize these guys in trades for major league help,” Elias said. “I am pleased that they got a reliever that’s looking good and a starter that’s going to help. They were prepared to and were processing some trade discussions that included some of their top 100 type of guys, but I think it is a nice outcome here that we’re still sitting on a very special and perhaps historic group of Orioles talent right now, these guys that are all still with us.”

Internal belief in their youth paid off with a strong first four months of 2023. Whether the front office did enough to support it over the next three remains to be seen.

Orioles at Blue Jays

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug