Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 600-455
Exam Name : Deploying Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise (DUCCE)
Vendor Name : Cisco
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Exam Name : Designing Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise
Exam Number : 600-455 UCCED
Exam Duration : 75 minutes
Questions in exam : 65-75
Passing Score : Variable (750-850 / 1000 Approx.)
Recommended Training : Administering Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Part 1 (AUCCE1) 2.0
Administering Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Part 2 (AUCCE2) 2.0
Deploying Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise (DUCCE) 2.0
Exam Registration : PEARSON VUE
Real Questions : Cisco 600-455 Real Questions
VCE practice questions : Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Specialist Practice Test

Describe the Features and Functionality of the Cisco Unified CCE Solution 23%
1. Describe the role of Cisco Unified Communications Manager in Cisco Unified CCE
2. Describe the role of voice gateways and Session Initiation Protocol proxy in Cisco Unified CCE
3. Describe the role of congestion control in Cisco Unified CCE
4. Describe the role of Cisco Unified Intelligent Contact Management (Unified ICM) in Cisco Unified CCE
5. Describe the role of CTI in Cisco Unified CCE
6. Describe the role of Cisco Unified Customer Voice Portal in Cisco Unified CCE
7. Describe the role of high priority traffic in Cisco Unified ICM
8. Describe the methods available to configure and use precision routing
9. Describe the role of Cisco Unified Mobile Agent in Cisco Unified CCE
10. Describe the role of Cisco Outbound Option in Cisco Unified CCE
11. Describe the methods available to secure the Cisco Unified CCE solution and their impact on system capacity and functionality
Identify the Design Considerations for Cisco Unified Communications Manager in a Cisco Unified CCE Solution 11%
1. Describe the Cisco Unified Communications Manager originated calls to Cisco Unified Customer Voice Portal
2. Describe the Cisco Unified Communications Manager options for transfer calls to agents involving SIP trunks
3. Describe the requirements for Cisco Unified Mobile Agent on Cisco Unified Communications Manager
4. Describe the impact of the multiline automatic call distributor functionality of Cisco Unified CCE on Cisco Unified Communications Manager
5. Describe the cluster over the WAN consideration for Cisco Unified Communications Manager
6. Describe the Cisco Unified Communications Manager redundancy options for centralized deployment
7. Describe the methods available to maintain end to end reporting for transferred calls
Identify the Network Design Considerations in a Cisco Unified CCE Solution 19%
1. Explain the failure scenarios with geographically separated Cisco Unified CCE deployments
2. Describe the quality of service usage within Unified Contact Center Enterprise solution
3. Explain the network requirements to support the Clustering over the WAN (CoW) deployment model for the Cisco Unified CCE solution
4. Describe the basic deployment models for the Cisco Unified CCE solution (single-site, multisite centralized, and multisite distributed)
5. Explain network requirements for the Cisco Unified Intelligent Contact Management visible and private network connections in a Cisco Unified CCE solution
6. Describe Cisco Finesse failover scenarios
7. Describe the factors that impact Cisco Unified Intelligence Center bandwidth usage
8. Describe the Test Other Side method used in Unified Intelligent Contact Management
9. Describe the high-availability options of all components supported in the Cisco Unified CCE solution
Identify the Design Considerations for Cisco Unified ICM, Cisco Finesse, Cisco Unified CVP, and Cisco Unified Intelligence Center in a Cisco Unified CCE Solution 23%
1. Explain call type usage within Cisco Unified ICM in Cisco Unified CCE solution
2. Describe the design consideration for administrative workstations when Unified CCE is deployed into two data centers (geographically separated)
3. Describe the impact for re-qualify call node in Cisco Unified ICM script
4. Describe the Cisco Unified Boarder Element and SIP proxy functionality within Cisco Unified CCE solution
5. Describe Post Call Survey functionality and its call flow
6. Describe Whisper Announcement functionality and its call flow
7. Describe Courtesy Call back functionality and its call flow
8. Describe Cisco Finesse features and its third-party gadgets
9. Describe the Cisco Finesse workflow
10. Describe the agent target rules feature of Cisco Unified ICM and the impact it has on the Cisco Unified CCE solution
Describe the Sizing Process for Contact Center Resources and Cisco Unified CCE Components 13%
1. Describe common sizing inputs such as agent talk time, queue time, and wrap-up time and their impact on sizing contact center resources
2. Explain how Erlang calculations are used as part of the sizing for contact center resources
3. Describe the Packaged CCE capacity
4. Describe the sizing consideration for SIP proxy methods
5. Describe the factors that are used to size the components of the Cisco Unified CCE solution — including Cisco Unified Communications Manager, Cisco Unified CVP, and Cisco Unified ICM components, such as peripheral gateway, router, logger, and administrative workstations
6. Describe the factors that are used in sizing the bandwidth required for the Cisco Unified CCE solution
Describe the Virtualization Environment for Contact Center Resources and Cisco Unified CCE Components 11%
1. Identify the VMware supported features
2. Describe the configuration considerations for NIC in virtualization environment
3. Describe the Cisco Unified Computing System B_Series fabric interconnection and the upstream network connectivity
4. Describe the design considerations for Cisco Unified CCE running on the Cisco Unified Computing System B_Series
5. Describe the design considerations for upstream IP switches when using the Cisco Unified Computing System C_Series



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug