Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Vendor Name : SASInstitute
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Exam ID : A00-211
Exam Name : SAS Base Programming for SAS (r) 9 (SASInstitute)
Questions : 40-45
Duration : 135 min.
Passing Scores : 725
Total Point Scores : 1000

Access data.
• Access SAS data sets with the SET statement.
• Use PROC IMPORT to access non-SAS data sources.
o Read delimited and Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) files with PROC IMPORT.
o Use PROC IMPORT statement options (OUT=, DBMS=, REPLACE)
o Use the GUESSINGROWS statement
• Use the SAS/ACCESS XLSX engine to read a Microsoft Excel workbook.xlsx file.

Combine SAS data sets.
• Concatenate data sets.
• Merge data sets one-to-one.
• Merge data sets one-to-many.
Create and manipulate SAS date values.
• Explain how SAS stores date and time values.
• Use SAS informats to read common date and time expressions.
• Use SAS date and time formats to specify how the values are displayed.
Control which observations and variables in a SAS data set are processed and output.
• Use the WHERE statement in the DATA step to select observations to be processed.
• Subset variables to be output by using the DROP and KEEP statements.
• Use the DROP= and KEEP= data set options to specify columns to be processed and/or output.

Sort observations in a SAS data set.
• Use the SORT Procedure to re-order observations in place or output to a new dataset.
• Remove duplicate observations with the SORT Procedure.
Conditionally execute SAS statements.
• Use IF-THEN/ELSE statements to process data conditionally.
• Use DO and END statements to execute multiple statements conditionally.
Use assignment statements in the DATA step.
• Create new variables and assign a value.
• Assign a new value to an existing variable.
• Assign the value of an expression to a variable.
• Assign a constant date value to a variable.
Modify variable attributes using options and statements in the DATA step.
• Change the names of variables by using the RENAME= data set option.
• Use LABEL and FORMAT statements to modify attributes in a DATA step.
• Define the length of a variable using the LENGTH statement.
Accumulate sub-totals and totals using DATA step statements.
• Use the BY statement to aggregate by subgroups.
• User first. and last. processing to identify where groups begin and end.
• Use the RETAIN and SUM statements.
Use SAS functions to manipulate character data, numeric data, and SAS date values.
• Use SAS functions such as SCAN, SUBSTR, TRIM, UPCASE, and LOWCASE to perform
tasks such as the tasks shown below.
o Replace the contents of a character value.
o Trim trailing blanks from a character value.
o Search a character value and extract a portion of the value.
o Convert a character value to upper or lowercase.
• Use SAS arithmetic, financial, and probability functions to create or modify numeric values by using the INT and ROUND functions.
• Create SAS date values by using the functions MDY, TODAY, DATE, and TIME.
• Extract the month, year, and interval from a SAS date value by using the functions YEAR, QTR, MONTH, and DAY.
• Perform calculations with date and datetime values and time intervals by using the functions INTCK, INTNX, DATDIF and YRDIF

Use SAS functions to convert character data to numeric and vice versa.
• Explain the automatic conversion that SAS uses to convert values between data types.
• Use the INPUT function to explicitly convert character data values to numeric values.
Process data using DO LOOPS.
• Explain how iterative DO loops function.
• Use DO loops to eliminate redundant code and to perform repetitive calculations.
• Use conditional DO loops.
• Use nested DO loops.
Restructure SAS data sets with PROC TRANSPOSE.
• Select variables to transpose with the VAR statement.
• Rename transposed variables with the ID statement.
• Process data within groups using the BY statement.
• Use PROC TRANSPOSE options (OUT=, PREFIX= and NAME=).
Use macro variables to simplify program maintenance.
• Create macro variables with the %LET statement
• Use macro variables within SAS programs.
Error Handling
Identify and resolve programming logic errors.
• Use the PUTLOG Statement in the Data Step to help identify logic errors.
• Use PUTLOG to write the value of a variable, formatted values, or to write values of all variables.
• Use PUTLOG with Conditional logic.
• Use temporary variables N and ERROR to debug a DATA step.
Recognize and correct syntax errors.
• Identify the characteristics of SAS statements.
• Define SAS syntax rules including the typical types of syntax errors such as misspelled keywords, unmatched quotation marks, missing semicolons, and invalid options.
• Use the log to help diagnose syntax errors in a given program.

Generate list reports using the PRINT procedure.
• Modify the default behavior of PROC PRINT by adding statements and options such as
o use the VAR statement to select and order variables.
o calculate totals with a SUM statement.
o select observations with a WHERE statement.
o use the ID statement to identify observations.
o use the BY statement to process groups.
Generate summary reports and frequency tables using base SAS procedures.
• Produce one-way and two-way frequency tables with the FREQ procedure.
• Enhance frequency tables with options (NLEVELS, ORDER=).
• Use PROC FREQ to validate data in a SAS data set.
• Calculate summary statistics and multilevel summaries using the MEANS procedure
• Enhance summary tables with options.
• Identify extreme and missing values with the UNIVARIATE procedure.
Enhance reports system user-defined formats, titles, footnotes and SAS System reporting options.
• Use PROC FORMAT to define custom formats.
o VALUE statement
o CNTLIN= option
• Use the LABEL statement to define descriptive column headings.
• Control the use of column headings with the LABEL and SPLIT=options in Proc Print output.
Generate reports using ODS statements.
• Identify the Output Delivery System destinations.
• Create HTML, PDF, RTF, and files with ODS statements.
• Use the STYLE=option to specify a style template.
• Create files that can be viewed in Microsoft Excel.
Export data
• Create a simple raw data file by using the EXPORT procedure as an alternative to the DATA step.
• Export data to Microsoft Excel using the SAS/ACCESS XLSX engine.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug