Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Arkansas Department of Education throws down gauntlet on CRT, demands public schools turn over materials

No result found, try new keyword!The Arkansas Department of Education called on school superintendents to turn over materials for the recently pulled AP African American Studies pilot program.

College Board announces new digital SAT exams

The College Board, the organization that administers standardized exams like the SAT and PSAT, announced today that tests will be delivered digitally internationally in 2023 and in the United States by 2024.

The change doesn’t mean that the popular and controversial college entrance exam can be taken from home. Schools and official testing centers will continue to offer the exams with a proctor.

“The digital SAT will be easier to take, easier to deliver and more relevant,” said Priscilla Rodriguez, vice president of college readiness exams at the College Board. “We’re not simply putting the current SAT on a digital platform. We’re taking full advantage of what delivering an exam digitally makes possible.”

The digital SAT will take less time, shortening from three hours to two. The exam will feature shorter studying passages but include a wider range of topics. Calculators may be used for the entire math section, and students will get their scores back within days instead of weeks. Students may also use their own devices like laptops or tablets to take the exam. The exam also will automatically save a student’s progress if they lose internet connectivity.

The new system also ensures every student receives a unique test, making it “practically impossible” to share answers.

Tuesday, August 22, 2023, 12:59 pm Affordable housing for teachers breaks ground in Palo Alto Tuesday, August 22, 2023, 11:15 am Orange Unified to consider notifying parents if students are transgender Tuesday, August 22, 2023, 11:15 am LA Unified plan would limit charter school co-locations Monday, August 21, 2023, 9:06 am More than 35 schools, districts cancel classes following Hurricane Hilary

Florida clarifies AP psychology can be taught after confusion

TALLAHASSEE, Fla. — Florida is allowing schools to offer the College Board’s Advance Placement psychology course after Education Commissioner Manny Diaz Jr. late Wednesday confirmed to superintendents that the class at the center of controversy can be “taught consistent” with state laws.

The guidance from Florida’s top education official, the second such memo in the last few days, is meant to clarify confusion set off when the College Board last week claimed the psychology course was “effectively banned” in the state due to its laws restricting K-12 lessons on sexual identity and gender orientation. Several school districts, however, already moved on from the class amid the uncertainty and are instead offering different psychology options when school starts as soon as Thursday for some counties.

“I believe I was clear in my previous letter, but I want to make sure there is no room for misinterpretation,” Diaz wrote in a letter to school leaders Wednesday. “It is the Department of Education’s stance that the learning target … ‘Describe how sex and gender influence socialization and other aspects of development,’ … can be taught consistent with Florida law.”

The latest letter from Diaz could put an end to a saga prompted by Florida education officials pressing the College Board in May about whether the nonprofit’s courses fell in line with state rules prohibiting most lessons on sexual orientation and gender identity in public schools. The nonprofit at the time pushed back on Florida’s attempt to influence lessons under the guise of parental rights law, referred to as “Don’t Say Gay” by critics.

The College Board’s claims that the course was banned sent some schools scrambling to find replacements last week while others were left weighing their options with mere days before classes start.

To illustrate how quickly things changed in Florida, officials schools with Palm Beach County School District announced Wednesday that local campuses will offer AP psychology just one day after apologizing for axing the course.

“If there was a way they could teach this course and not have their teachers get arrested, they would do it in a second,” Mike Burke, Palm Beach’s school chief, said Tuesday morning at a back-to-school breakfast, as reported by the Palm Beach Post, before the district reversed course.

Some school districts quickly dropped AP psychology and instead are offering Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education, or AICE, and International Baccalaureate programs. One district — Pinellas — ordered new AICE textbooks the same day it was announced the AP course could be disallowed.

But other districts trudged forward with the AP course, even before Diaz clarified the state’s stance on Wednesday. Broward County, as one example, is asking parents to “opt in” for students to take the course. Schools in Leon County, meanwhile, are moving ahead without such a designation.

“I have communicated to their staff to respect the law and follow the law, but not to fear the law and do more than it requires,” Leon County Schools Superintendent Rocky Hanna said in a statement Tuesday.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug