Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ACE-PT
Exam Name : Personal Trainer American Council
Vendor Name : ACE-Cert
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ACE-PT test Format | ACE-PT Course Contents | ACE-PT Course Outline | ACE-PT test Syllabus | ACE-PT test Objectives

Exam Detail:
The ACE-PT (American Council on Practice - Personal Trainer) test is a certification test for individuals seeking to become personal trainers. It assesses the knowledge and skills necessary to design and implement effective fitness programs for clients. Here are the test details for the ACE-PT exam:

- Number of Questions: The test typically consists of 150 multiple-choice questions.

- Time Limit: The time allocated to complete the test is 3 hours and 15 minutes.

Course Outline:
The ACE-PT course provides a comprehensive understanding of various subjects related to personal training. The course outline generally includes the following areas:

1. Anatomy and Practice Physiology:
- Understanding human anatomy, including skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems.
- The physiological response to exercise, including energy systems, muscle contractions, and cardiovascular adaptations.

2. Applied Practice Science:
- Principles of exercise programming and prescription.
- Assessment techniques, including fitness exams, body composition analysis, and cardiorespiratory fitness testing.
- Training adaptations and progressions.

3. Client Interview and Assessment:
- Conducting client consultations and exams to identify goals, health history, and limitations.
- Assessing posture, movement patterns, flexibility, and muscular imbalances.
- Developing individualized exercise programs based on client needs and goals.

4. Practice Programming and Instruction:
- Designing comprehensive exercise programs, including cardiovascular training, resistance training, flexibility exercises, and core training.
- Proper form and technique for exercise instruction and progression.
- Training special populations, such as older adults, pregnant women, and individuals with chronic conditions.

5. Nutrition and Weight Management:
- Basic nutrition principles and guidelines.
- Strategies for healthy weight management and body composition goals.
- Behavior change techniques and motivational strategies.

6. Legal and Professional Responsibilities:
- Understanding legal and ethical responsibilities as a personal trainer.
- Scope of practice and professional boundaries.
- Client confidentiality and privacy.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the ACE-PT test are as follows:

- Assessing candidates' knowledge of exercise science principles and their application to program design and prescription.
- Evaluating candidates' understanding of conducting client exams and interviews to develop individualized exercise programs.
- Testing candidates' knowledge of proper exercise form, technique, and progressions.
- Assessing candidates' understanding of basic nutrition principles and weight management strategies.
- Evaluating candidates' familiarity with legal and professional responsibilities as a personal trainer.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific test syllabus for the ACE-PT test covers the following topics:

1. Anatomy and Practice Physiology:
- Skeletal system
- Muscular system
- Cardiovascular system
- Respiratory system

2. Applied Practice Science:
- Practice programming principles
- Fitness test techniques
- Training adaptations and progressions

3. Client Interview and Assessment:
- Client consultation and goal setting
- Health history and limitations
- Posture and movement exams

4. Practice Programming and Instruction:
- Cardiovascular training
- Resistance training
- Flexibility exercises
- Core training

5. Nutrition and Weight Management:
- Basic nutrition principles
- Weight management strategies
- Behavior change techniques

6. Legal and Professional Responsibilities:
- Scope of practice and professional boundaries
- Client confidentiality and privacy
- Legal and ethical considerations

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Tips to ace in IELTS Published By Livemint | 28 Jan, 2023

IELTS is the high stakes English test for international study, migration and work

IELTS can fetch you job in countries such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK and USA.

Score of 7.0 band with section scores of 6.5 band is the passing score for IELTS exam

Here are some of the tips to ace in IELTS exam

Take as many practice tests as you can

Do mock tests under test conditions

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Know the terminology you will encounter

Ace Up Your Sleeve! Tips To Help You Dominate The Poker Table


Are you ready to dominate the poker table and show everyone who’s boss? Then it’s time for you to start implementing some strategy into your poker game. Today, we’ll share some of their best tips to help you start winning more consistently—from choosing the right cards to utilizing betting tactics. So put on your best poker face and let’s get started!

1. Start By Playing Poker Online

Starting with online poker can be a great option for those new to the poker scene. Online poker is convenient as there’s no need to go to a casino or poker room, so fitting poker into your daily routine is easy. Additionally, you can save money on lodging and transportation costs. Another huge advantage is the ability to use poker tools. Unlike in-person games, you can have software that tracks statistics, analyzes opponent tendencies, and even suggests optimal plays.

And if you’re looking to take on multiple tables simultaneously, online poker is definitely the way to go. Multi-tabling isn’t feasible in person, but it’s a common practice online. Last but not least, there are lucrative bonuses and rewards offered by online poker rooms. From sign-up bonuses to frequent player rewards and promotions, there are plenty of ways to boost your bankroll.

2. Choose Your Tables

Playing against opponents who are much stronger than you can be daunting and even discouraging. You may find yourself constantly losing and not learning much from the experience. However, playing against weaker opponents can cause you to become complacent and bored. You may not be challenged enough and not develop new strategies or skills to Improve your game.

This is why it’s important to play against opponents with a skill level similar to yours. This ensures a balanced and competitive game where you have a good chance at winning, while still allowing room for growth and development as a player. You’ll also likely find the game more enjoyable this way.


3. Don’t Play Weak Starting Hands

Playing weak starting hands in poker can be a costly mistake. Whether it’s due to inexperience or impatience, players who don’t exercise caution in their opening plays will often find themselves losing more often than not. Weak starting hands, such as those with low-value cards that aren’t suited, connected, or paired, do not have a high chance of improving and can easily be dominated by stronger hands.

One important step in learning how to play Texas Holdem is to be selective with which starting hands to play. A good starting hand consists of strong cards that have a good chance of improving, such as high-value pairs, suited cards, and connectors. Medium or low-value pairs and suited connectors can also be played, but only if you’re in a late position and there hasn’t been much betting before you.

4. Control the Table With Aggressive Play

When you choose to play aggressively, you are taking control of the game and pushing your opponents to make decisions under pressure. This can be especially effective when you have a strong hand, as aggressive play can lead to bigger payouts. Additionally, aggressive play can help you show dominance at the table, which can intimidate other players and force them to make mistakes.

Passive players are often seen as weaker, which can cause others to target them for their chips. By playing aggressively, you are less likely to be bullied by other players and stand a better chance at winning big. While it may seem risky, taking calculated risks and playing aggressively can ultimately lead to greater rewards on the poker table.

5. Utilize Betting Tactics

Two tactics that are commonly used in poker are continuation betting and check-raising. Continuation betting (or c-betting) involves placing a bet on the flop after being the last to raise pre-flop, regardless of whether or not the flop improved your hand. This allows you to keep control of the hand and puts pressure on your opponent to decide. However, players should be careful when c-betting with a weak hand, or they risk losing a lot of chips if an opponent calls.

Check-raising, on the other hand, is a tactic that is used to deceive your opponents. This is done by checking when it is your turn to act and then raising your opponent’s bet when they make one. It is especially effective when used against a bluffer in a late position, but players run the risk of getting outdrawn if no one bets, as opponents will be able to see more cards for free.

6. Take Advantage of Your Table Image

Your table image refers to how other players perceive your playing style based on your past hands, actions, and behavior. Factors like the bets you make and how you react to situations can all shape this image. By understanding your table image, you can use it to your advantage.

For example, if you’ve been playing conservatively, your table image may be that of a tight player who only plays strong hands. You can use this perception to bluff your opponents or play a wider range of hands. Similarly, if your opponents view you as a loose player, you can use this to your advantage by playing tighter and catching opponents off guard with a strong hand.


Success in poker requires an understanding of the game and its strategies. From choosing your starting hands wisely to playing aggressively and utilizing betting tactics, there are plenty of ways you can Improve your gameplay. You can increase your chances for success even further by taking advantage of your table image. With consistent practice and dedication, you’ll eventually become skilled enough to confidently compete at GGPoker, the world’s largest poker room!


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug