Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ACF-CCP
Exam Name : ACF Certified Cooking Professional
Vendor Name : Food
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ACF-CCP exam Format | ACF-CCP Course Contents | ACF-CCP Course Outline | ACF-CCP exam Syllabus | ACF-CCP exam Objectives

Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The number of questions in the Certified Cooking Professional exam may vary depending on the certifying organization or program. Typically, the exam consists of multiple-choice questions, and the exact number can range from 50 to 100 questions.

- Time: The duration of the exam can also vary. It is typically between 2 to 3 hours. However, it's important to note that the exam duration may differ depending on the certifying body. It is advisable to check the specific guidelines provided by the certifying organization for accurate and up-to-date information.

Course Outline:
The course outline for the Certified Cooking Professional certification varies depending on the certifying organization or culinary program. Generally, the certification covers a comprehensive range of culinary knowledge and skills. The course outline may include, but is not limited to, the following topics:

1. Culinary Fundamentals:
- Food safety and sanitation practices
- Knife skills and culinary techniques
- Culinary terminology and basic cooking methods
- Ingredient identification and quality exam

2. Cooking Techniques:
- Cooking methods for different ingredients (meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, grains, etc.)
- Sauces, stocks, and soups preparation
- Baking and pastry techniques
- Grilling, roasting, sautéing, and other cooking methods

3. Menu Planning and Recipe Development:
- Menu planning and design
- Recipe creation and modification
- Flavor balancing and seasoning techniques
- Culinary creativity and presentation

4. Culinary Nutrition:
- Nutritional considerations in cooking
- Healthy cooking techniques
- Special dietary requirements (vegetarian, vegan, gluten-free, etc.)
- Allergen awareness and substitutions

5. Culinary Management and Operations:
- Kitchen organization and workflow
- Culinary costing and budgeting
- Inventory management and ordering
- Team management and leadership skills

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the Certified Cooking Professional exam typically include:

1. Assessing Culinary Knowledge: Evaluate the candidate's understanding of culinary fundamentals, cooking techniques, menu planning, and recipe development.

2. Testing Culinary Skills: Assess the candidate's ability to execute various cooking techniques, apply proper culinary methods, and produce high-quality culinary creations.

3. Validating Culinary Management Competencies: Ensure that candidates have a grasp of culinary management and operational aspects, including kitchen organization, costing, inventory management, and leadership skills.

4. Certifying Culinary Professionals: Provide a recognized certification for individuals who demonstrate their expertise and competency in the culinary field.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific exam syllabus for the Certified Cooking Professional certification may vary depending on the certifying organization or program. The syllabus typically covers the following Topics (but is not limited to):

1. Food Safety and Sanitation:
- Foodborne illnesses and prevention
- Proper handling and storage of food
- HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) principles

2. Culinary Techniques:
- Knife skills and culinary tools
- Cooking methods (grilling, baking, sautéing, etc.)
- Sauce and soup preparation techniques

3. Ingredient Knowledge and Selection:
- Identifying and selecting high-quality ingredients
- Seasonal ingredient availability
- Understanding flavor profiles and ingredient pairings

4. Menu Planning and Recipe Development:
- Designing balanced and creative menus
- Creating and modifying recipes
- Portion control and recipe scaling

5. Culinary Nutrition:
- Nutritional principles and guidelines
- Healthy cooking techniques
- Special dietary considerations

6. Culinary Management and Operations:
- Kitchen organization and workflow
- Costing and budget ing in a culinary operation
- Inventory management and ordering procedures
- Leadership and team management skills

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Only 48% of Utah 3rd graders read at grade level; here’s how lawmakers hope to boost that

It’s been a year since new initiatives got underway to help ensure Utah third graders are reading on grade level — and state officials are pointing to small gains.

Lawmakers allocated $18.5 million, a mix of one-time and ongoing funding, in 2022 to fuel the projects outlined in SB127, the Early Literacy Outcomes Improvement Bill.

From the school year before the bill passed to testing this spring, the percentage of third graders reading on grade level has increased from 44% to 48%. That’s a 2% increase each year.

But lawmakers want to hit the 70% mark by 2027.

“We have a long ways to go,” said Jennifer Throndsen, director of teaching and learning for the Utah State Board of Education. “It’s slowly climbing. We’re going need to see some acceleration in order to get to that 70%.”

The percentage of third graders reading at grade level would need to increase by 5.5% each year for the next four years, she said.

(Christopher Cherrington | The Salt Lake Tribune)

The Early Literacy bill mandated that schools, teachers and colleges work in four focus areas to increase K-3 literacy rates: increase both instructional support, such as better literacy exams, for teachers and statewide support, such as coaches, for the education system; and boost both training of teachers and the preparation of future educators. There are 20 projects across those four areas.

In an update on their progress at the Capitol this week, Throndsen predicted that the state’s early literacy intervention — working with children before the third grade — and providing support and training for early career teachers will Excellerate results significantly.

Tracking improvement over time

(Rick Egan | The Salt Lake Tribune) Jennifer Throndsen, with the Utah State Board of Education speaks during a Science of reading Expert Panel at the Capitol, on Thursday, Aug. 17, 2023.

Third grade marks a pivotal moment in a child’s academic career and future success. It’s the year they move from learning to read to reading to learn.

It’s also the first year Utah students take the proficiency exam called RISE, which assesses their mastery of state core standards in English language arts, math, science and writing. Third graders are assessed only on English language arts and math.

To better predict how students will score on RISE — and more broadly, to track the efficiency of interventions and teaching methods — the new projects include stronger monitoring and exams.

Educators use a test called Acadience, which is a benchmark exam administered to students three times per year. Scoring “at benchmark” means a student is likely to score above the 40th percentile on any high-quality reading exam.

However, RISE is a more rigorous test, Throndsen said, meaning that even if students are “at benchmark” with Acadience, they are likely not reading at grade level according to RISE standards.

As an example, 71% of third graders “achieved benchmark” for the 2022-23 school year, but only 48% achieved grade-level proficiency based on RISE standards.

State officials knew changes had to be made. “The benchmark wasn’t telling the full story,” Throndsen said. “We’re getting a lot of false sense of security.”

The state instructed schools to aim for students to score in the “above benchmark” range instead, which more accurately predicted how well they will do on RISE.

The state is also placing more importance on what’s known as Lexile levels. A Lexile is used for two primary purposes: to determine the difficulty of a text or to determine a student’s reading ability. The higher a child’s score, the higher their reading level.

Lexiles are a more accurate prediction of a student’s future performance on RISE, Throndsen said.

Starting as soon as possible

Targeted reading interventions must start before the third grade. And while the state missed the mark with last year’s third graders, last year’s kindergartners made significant improvements in reading.

At the start of the 2022-23 school year, 57% of kindergartners were at benchmark. By the end of the year, that rose to 74%, demonstrating significant growth.

“We had the lowest percentage of students that we’ve had in the past five years in terms of coming in ready for kindergarten,” Throndsen said. “And they ended with the highest percentage of students we’ve ever had, in the history of tracking this data for 15 years, of the students at or above grade level by the end of the year.”

Early intervention is how the state plans to reach its 70% third grade reading proficiency goal, Throndsen explained.

“If they can deliver them early, early intervention works,” she said. “So that kindergarten cohort going [into first grade] at 75% proficient is going to be a game changer for first grade.”

More support and training for teachers

Teachers are the heart of literacy; every Utah K-3 teacher is now required to undergo what’s called “LETRS” training, or Language Essentials for Teachers of reading and Spelling.

It’s an intensive professional learning program designed to turn early childhood and elementary educators into literacy and language experts. The program is currently being used in 23 states, according to EdWeek.

So far, more than 6,300 Utah educators have completed all eight units and 4,000 are still in progress.

Prior to taking the course, teachers took a pretest, and only 62% demonstrated sufficient knowledge to pass. But by the end of the course, 91% passed.

“That’s huge in the depth of knowledge that their teachers are gaining in the science of reading,” said Julie Clark, education specialist for the USBE.

The state is also investing at colleges. “We can’t just prepare the teachers they have right now,” Throndsen said. “We need the future teachers to also have this knowledge and skills.”

The state has funded the placement of six experts in the science of reading at six universities across Utah. They develop teacher preparation programs, monitor courses and work with instructors.

“We are adding expertise and depth of knowledge to the university programs to help with that preparation pathway, and to ensure their teachers are coming in with the foundational knowledge they need to be ready to teach young children to read,” Throndsen said.

In order to receive their teacher’s license in Utah, candidates must pass the Foundations of reading exam. Under SB127, universities are now required to prepare teacher candidates to pass the exam at no cost to the participant.

Throndsen said providing training and supports to teachers also will increase early-career retention. “Our retention rates for early career teachers is low,” she said. “It’s one of the lower in the nation.”

She estimates that Utah loses 43% of teachers in their first five years, largely because they don’t feel like they’re making a difference. The hope is that by better preparing teachers, they will help create and see changes.

“That’s what keeps people in that profession; when they can see that what they’re doing is having an impact,” Throndsen said.

Helping students become literate is crucial, she added, as it predicts quality of life in adulthood. For example, nearly 70% of incarcerated adults cannot read at a fourth-grade level, according to a study by the National Center for Education Statistics.

Illiteracy “predicts whether you go to jail,” Throndsen said. “It predicts whether you need to be on food stamps. It predicts so many things. Being able to read is kind of that ticket to success in life.”


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug