Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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ACT ACT-English : ACT Section One: English ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : ACT-English
Exam Name : ACT Section One: English
Vendor Name : ACT
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ACT-English test Format | ACT-English Course Contents | ACT-English Course Outline | ACT-English test Syllabus | ACT-English test Objectives

Test Details:
- test Name: ACT ACT-English ACT Section One: English
- test Format: Multiple-choice questions
- test Duration: 45 minutes
- Number of Questions: 75-80
- Passing Score: Varies (scaled score)
- Prerequisites: None
- test Date: Offered multiple times throughout the year

Course Outline: ACT ACT-English ACT Section One: English

I. Usage and Mechanics
A. Punctuation (commas, apostrophes, semicolons, colons, etc.)
B. Grammar and sentence structure
C. Capitalization and punctuation rules

II. Rhetorical Skills
A. Organization and Unity
B. Sentence Formation and Structure
C. Style and Tone

III. Strategy and Approach
A. Time management and pacing strategies
B. Identifying main ideas and supporting details
C. Effective studying and comprehension techniques

IV. Contextual Understanding
A. Identifying word choice and vocabulary usage
B. Recognizing the author's purpose and tone
C. Analyzing the relationships between different parts of a passage

Exam Objectives:
- Demonstrate knowledge of grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure rules
- Apply rhetorical skills in analyzing and improving sentence formation and structure
- Understand and apply strategies for effective studying and comprehension
- Recognize and analyze word choice, tone, and author's purpose
- Evaluate the relationships between different parts of a passage for contextual understanding

The syllabus for the ACT ACT-English ACT Section One: English course will cover the following topics:
- Usage and Mechanics, including punctuation, grammar, and capitalization
- Rhetorical Skills, focusing on organization, sentence formation, and style
- Strategy and Approach, including time management and effective studying techniques
- Contextual Understanding, involving word choice, author's purpose, and passage analysis

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Social Security Cheat Sheet: How Your Benefits Work

If you receive Social Security benefits, you've likely had many questions over the years about how it all works. The Social Security Administration handles a slew of payments each month, including for Social Security beneficiaries, Social Security Disability Insurance recipients and for people who receive Supplemental Security Income. And if you receive more than one of these payments, it can get even trickier.

To guide you through some of the ins and outs of Social Security -- from what you need to know before you retire to when your money will arrive -- CNET has compiled a cheat sheet so you can stay on top of the latest details.

When will I get my Social Security check?

Whether you're a new Social Security beneficiary or you've been receiving it for decades, knowing when your check will arrive each month is a must. Your payment date depends on your birthday and when you started receiving benefits. Each month, these stories are updated to reflect the exact dates for when the Social Security Administration will disburse your payment.

Find out how much money you'll get next year.

James Martin/CNETHow to apply for benefits

There are several different types of benefits you can receive from the Social Security Administration and other federal programs. Here's what they are and how to apply.

I won't collect Social Security benefits for years. What should I know now?

Preparing for Social Security is important, regardless of how close you are to retirement. But it's never too early to learn about how your benefits will work once you're ready to begin collecting them. 

Additional Social Security information that's important to know

Aside from Social Security benefits, knowing important information about your Social Security number and card can help prevent future mishaps. For instance, if you need a replacement Social Security card or need to know who it's OK to share your SSN with, they can help.

How is Medicare related to Social Security?

Medicare insurance in the US is for those age 65 or older, or certain people with disabilities. The program is designed to help with the cost of health care and prescription drugs. Whether you receive it now or plan to in the future, it's good to brush up on how it works.

For additional health insurance information, here's what to know about Affordable Care Act health plans and how to save on health care if you don't have insurance.

Jenna Ortega Recalls ‘Terrifying’ Time Having to Act Like She Was On Ecstasy

Jenna Ortega’s done a lot in her time as an actor. She’s flexed her acting muscles in all kinds of scenes. Take the intense game of capture the flag in Yes Day. Or evading a killer in Scream VI. However, the Wednesday star’s revealed she had a particularly “terrifying” time acting like she was on ecstasy.

Jenna Ortega asked herself, ‘How do you be high on ecstasy?’ before filming ‘The Fallout’ Jenna Ortega, who was 'terrified' of having to act like she was on ecstasy, looks on Jenna Ortega | Axelle/Bauer-Griffin/FilmMagic

Ortega had questions about her role in 2022’s The Fallout long before cameras were rolling. Speaking to The Wall Street Journal, the 20-year-old revealed one thought ran through her mind before playing Vada Cavell, a teen navigating the aftermath of a high school shooting. 

“Before the project started, I remember thinking: How do you be high on ecstasy?’” Ortega told the outlet in June 2023. 

The actor, who spent months preparing for the scene, explained she’d, up until that point, kept preparation for roles rather relaxed. Why? Because, as Ortega said, real life is spontaneous. 

“You never know what you’re going to say next or what your next facial expression is going to be,” she said. “So I try not to do that for characters.”

‘The Fallout’ taught Jenna Ortega not to ‘prepare’ as much for future roles Jenna Ortega, who found acting like she was on ecstasy 'terrifying,' waves Jenna Ortega | Gotham/GC Images

Ortega continued, explaining preparing for The Fallout and the ecstasy scene, in particular, proved to be a learning experience.

Noting she recorded herself “doing crazy things” in her bedroom to prepare, the Disney Channel alum said a curveball on the day of filming — being asked by director Megan Park to walk down a staircase — made her realize not preparing as much, or as intensely, works better for her personally.

“I realized I will never prepare [like that] again,” she said. “Because the stress when I saw those stairs and not having anything that was usable was terrifying.”

Jenna Ortega’s next role is Mabel in ‘Finestkind’  Jenna Ortega, who recalled finding ecstasy scene in 'The Fallout' 'terrifying' to film, smiles Jenna Ortega | Vivien Killilea/Getty Images for IMDb

After her “terrifying” experience filming The Fallout, the actor is hitting the water. Well, sort of. She’s starring in Finestkind, a thriller from writer-director Brian Helgeland, about fishermen who become entangled with organized crime. 

Set to premiere at the Toronto Film Festival in September 2023, Finestkind has Ortega playing Mabel, a young woman “caught in the middle” of estranged brothers and their plan to get out of debt (via TIFF). Mabel, who is “trying to make her own future,” starts dating Toby Wallace’s character Charlie. The cast also includes Tommy Lee Jones, Ben Foster, and Tim Daly among others. 

Finestkind, which is expected to hit Paramount+ later in 2023, doesn’t have an official trailer yet. However, there has been a glimpse of Ortega and her fellow cast members in a photo. 

The image, posted to Twitter by TIFF, shows Ortega, Jones, Foster, and Wallace in character on what appears to be a run-down fishing boat. They’re described in the caption as a “team who tread dangerous waters after their debts start piling up, in this new crime drama.” 

The Fallout is available to stream on Max.  

Fantasy Football cheat sheets: PPR, non-PPR, depth charts

If you're seeking a one-stop shop for updated 2023 fantasy football rankings, depth charts and cheat sheets throughout the summer, you've come to the right place. Below, you will find them for PPR (point per reception) and non-PPR formats, as well as dynasty leagues.

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Fantasy depth charts for each NFL team: top two quarterbacks, three running backs, four wide receivers, two tight ends and a kicker. Prioritized by fantasy value in PPR leagues rather than role-defined on a traditional NFL depth chart, this includes players' overall ranks. get »

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* All cheat sheets are in PDF format. Your device must be equipped with a PDF reader for you to access and print the cheat sheet.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug