Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Medical AEMT : NREMT Advanced Emergency Medical Technician ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : AEMT
Exam Name : NREMT Advanced Emergency Medical Technician
Vendor Name : Medical
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Exam : AEMT

Exam Name : Advanced Emergency Medical Technician

Number of Questions : 135

Live Questions : 100

Pilot Questions : 35

Time : 2hrs 15 min.



The primary focus of the Advanced Emergency Medical Technician is to provide basic and limited advanced emergency medical care and transportation for critical and emergent patients who access the emergency medical system. This individual possesses the basic knowledge and skills necessary to provide patient care and transportation. Advanced Emergency Medical Technicians function as part of a comprehensive EMS response, under medical oversight. Advanced Emergency Medical Technicians perform interventions with the basic and advanced equipment typically found on an ambulance. The Advanced Emergency Medical Technician is a link from the scene to the emergency health care system.



The National Registry Advanced Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) cognitive test is a linear computer based test (CBT). Each candidate will answer 135 questions (items). Each test will have 100 ‘live items that count toward the final score. The test will also have 35 pilot questions that do not affect the final score. The maximum amount of time given to complete the test is 2 hours and 15 minutes.



The test will cover the entire spectrum of EMS care including:

Airway

Respiration & Ventilation

Cardiology & Resuscitation

Trauma

Medical

Obstetrics/Gynecology

EMS Operations



Items related to patient care are focused on adult and geriatric patients (85%) and pediatric patients (15%). In order to pass the exam, candidates must meet a standard level of competency. The passing standard is defined by the ability to provide safe and effective entry level emergency medical care.



- Airway, Respiration & Ventilation 18%-22% 85% Adult; 15% Pediatric

- Cardiology & Resuscitation 21%-25% 85% Adult; 15% Pediatric

- Trauma 14%-18% 85% Adult; 15% Pediatric

- Medical; Obstetrics & Gynecology 26%-30% 85% Adult; 15% Pediatric

- EMS Operations 11%-15% N/A



Traditional refresher course: Completion of a State or CAPCE(F1, F2, F5) approved 36 hour AEMT refresher course.
NCCR 25 hours of continuing education: Completion of the 25 hour National Competency Component from the NCCP model.
Continuing education course hours: Advanced EMT remedial may be completed by continuing education* and must include the courses and hours listed here under Traditional Model.



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Texas abortion law’s wording is causing dangerous confusion over emergency medical exceptions, critics say

CNN  — 

Emergency medical exceptions to the Texas abortion ban are extremely rare, and experts say the law leaves medical providers with their hands tied and puts patients at risk.

The Texas Supreme Court, comprised of nine Republicans, on Monday ruled against a woman seeking an abortion under the “medical emergency” exception to Texas’ near-total abortion ban, placing the law, which went into effect in 2022, under intense national scrutiny.

Thirty-one-year-old Kate Cox sought an abortion after learning her fetus had a fatal condition and her life and future fertility could be at risk without the procedure. Her doctor said she believed in good faith that the abortion was medically necessary. After a state judge ruled she could terminate her pregnancy, the case went to the Texas Supreme Court, which ruled against Cox.

By the time that ruling was made, Cox had already left the state to obtain an abortion elsewhere, her attorneys said.

The “medical emergency” statute in Texas – which went into effect after the US Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade – allows for an abortion only if the mother has a “life-threatening” condition while pregnant or is at “serious risk of substantial impairment of a major bodily function.”

After the state Supreme Court ruling, Molly Duane, senior staff attorney at the Center for Reproductive Rights, argued that the case is proof that proposed exceptions to abortion bans don’t work.

“If Kate can’t get an abortion in Texas, who can?” Duane said in a statement.

Thirty-four abortions were performed in the state as of September 15 this year, data from Texas Health and Human Services shows. All were performed in a hospital, as opposed to a clinic or a doctor’s office. All were performed both because of a “medical emergency” and to “preserve the health of the pregnant woman,” the data notes.

In 2020, the last full year before Texas put in place its most severe restrictions on access to abortion, 53,949 abortions were performed in the state, according to the health department. Of those, less than 1% were performed in a hospital. The data shows the number of abortions declining in the following years.

In September 2021, the state law banning abortion after six weeks went into effect. At the time it was one of the most restrictive abortion laws in the nation, outlawing the procedure at a stage when many do not yet know they are pregnant.

In 2022, the data shows 17,212 abortions, most of which were performed before Roe v. Wade was overturned on June 24, triggering a complete ban on abortion in the state, except those intended to protect the life of the mother. Less than 1% of those were performed in a hospital.

That year, the health department listed 33 of the 17,212 abortions as being due to a medical emergency and to preserve the pregnant person’s health.

The state Supreme Court ruling left many asking: If Cox’s case doesn’t constitute a medical emergency, what does?

“There is no clear definition in the statute,” said Sonia Suter, a professor of law at George Washington University who specializes in medical ethics and reproductive rights.

“Part of the problem is trying to define an exception for a medical profession in a statute that doesn’t necessarily rely on medical terms,” Suter said. “You’re almost speaking two different languages.”

The fact that all of the 34 abortions recorded in Texas this year were performed in hospitals, as opposed to less than 1% in previous years, suggests that exceptions are being made only in the most dire cases, when a pregnant person is dying or in imminent risk of death, Suter said.

Reproductive health advocates say those 34 cases don’t represent the full scope of Texans who need abortion care to preserve their lives and health.

Rates of severe maternal morbidity, or unexpected complications of labor and delivery that can have significant acute or long-term consequences to a woman’s health, have increased in the US from 2008 to 2021, according to research published by the medical journal JAMA.

About 2,200 infants died in Texas in 2022, an 11.5% jump from the year before, according to Texas Department of State Health Services data. The spike reversed a nearly decadelong decline in infant deaths, CNN previously reported.

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists filed an amicus brief in support of Cox’s case, citing its concerns.

“The inability of clinicians in Texas to provide essential reproductive health care, starkly presented in this case, will increase existing disparities in health outcomes for Texas residents, exacerbate the shortage of qualified health care providers and worsen the maternal mortality rate in Texas, which is already at crisis levels,” the group wrote.

Maternal death rates soared in Texas between 1999 and 2019, according to a study published in JAMA.

“This is harming countless Texans who are pregnant or might one day become pregnant – whether or not they ever seek abortions or experience a serious obstetrical complication,” the brief read.

“Life threatening – well, what does it mean to threaten your life?” said Suter. “Is a one percent risk enough? Two percent? Eighty percent? How great does the risk have to be?”

The Texas Supreme Court claimed its ruling provides some clarity around the legal standards and called on the Texas Medical Board to provide more guidance on the “medical emergency” exception to the abortion ban.

“The courts cannot go further by entering into the medical-judgment arena,” the court stated in its opinion. “The Texas Medical Board, however, can do more to provide guidance in response to any confusion that currently prevails.”

The board has not responded to CNN’s request for comment.

A separate case pending before the Texas Supreme Court is demanding clarity on what is included under the exception.

Providers, courts and medical authorities have been unable to provide clarity on the exception – and some argue that’s by design.

“The vagueness may not be a bug, but a feature,” said Suter. “Look at the numbers – abortions are not happening. If that’s your primary goal, then you want it to be an exception that looks good on paper but that actually chills the provision of abortions.”

Proponents of the state’s abortion ban argue that the law can’t outline every possible medical emergency, and doctors have the power to make the final decision about whether a person needs an abortion to preserve their life or major bodily functions.

Those who are calling for more clarity around the law say Cox’s case revealed cracks in that argument.

Because there is no uniform guidance on what falls within the exception, every doctor who authorizes or facilitates an abortion in Texas could have their “reasonable medical judgment” challenged, leaving them vulnerable to civil or criminal charges, or having their medical license challenged, Suter said.

Before Cox’s case went to the state’s Supreme Court, a county judge granted a temporary restraining order allowing her physician, Dr. Damla Karsan, to facilitate an abortion under the state’s medical emergency exception.

In response, Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton sent an open letter to three hospitals where Karsan holds privileges, threatening potential first degree felony prosecutions and civil penalties of $100,000 for each violation if they allowed Karsan to provide the abortion at their facilities.

The temporary restraining order, Paxton warned, “will not insulate you, or anyone else, from civil and criminal liability for violating Texas’ abortion laws.”

“We remind you that the (temporary restraining order) will expire long before the statute of limitations for violating Texas’ abortion laws expires,” he added. Paxton named both Karsan and Cox in the letter.

Earlier this year, reproductive health advocates set up a legal defense network to help doctors providing abortion care.

“There’s a serious problem when you are imposing this kind of criminal penalty on somebody who doesn’t know they’re violating the law, because there’s so many different ways to interpret it,” Suter said.


 




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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug