Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice

Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice

Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 1 of 13 Bamboo Hostels China / Studio Anna Heringer. Image: © Jenny JI Share Share



Contemporary architecture does not come from scratch. Today’s projects are based on a series of experiments that have occurred since humanity began to conceive living and coexistence spaces. An intrinsic connection between customs, traditions, local materials, and construction techniques gave rise to ancestral and vernacular architectures. The influence of each population's context and culture can be an inspiration for contemporary architects who, by looking to the past, can effectively respond to the future.

Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 2 of 13Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 3 of 13Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 4 of 13Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 5 of 13Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - More Images+ 8

It is not enough to consider purpose and structure when designing. It is also necessary to understand the social and significant functions of a building within its cultural and geographical context. The importance of understanding local culture stretches beyond just bringing a sense of belonging to the community that will use the place. It can suggest spatial and functional organization based on how people interact with each other through internal courtyards, community spaces, worship areas, or other elements that are suitable for gathering. Or present different traditional techniques and local materials, which, together with an understanding of the workforce's skills, add tremendous sustainable potential for social transformation.

In addition, spatial and functional organization together with the appropriate materials can provide excellent thermal and lighting comfort without using equipment that requires other types of energy than natural ones. These are strategies that respond sensitively and efficiently to local climatic conditions, promoting energy efficiency and reducing environmental impact.

Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 10 of 13 Sangath / Balkrishna Doshi. Image: © Vitra Design Museum

Immersing yourself in local culture is also about orienting yourself to decisions regarding form and aesthetics. The search for or reinterpretation of traditional elements, such as decorative patterns and ornaments, specific materials and typologies, reflects the cultural and visual identity of the community, preserving memories and techniques in the face of possible erasures and expanding the architectural repertoire of each region.

In this way, projects that adopt local culture during their process tend to be highly successful and recognized by the community and by specialized critics who recognize the inventive power of translating local concepts into techniques that contemporaneity makes possible. Demonstrating the creative power of architects who know their character and how it is established from collective knowledge without erasing it.

Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 3 of 13 Serpentine Pavilion / Kéré Architecture. Image courtesy of Kéré Architecture

To serve as inspiration, they have selected five renowned architects who have mastered the art of drawing inspiration from local cultures.

Anna Heringer

Anna Heringer grew up in a small Austro-Bavarian town near Salzburg. At age 19, she spent a year living and working in Bangladesh, where she now has most of her projects underway, in addition to other countries such as China and Zimbabwe.

In her practice, reading the context is fundamental for each project, as well as the sustainability and social impact it can cause. The architect says that local materials and energy sources are essential. “With energy sources, I think about human work”, reiterating that if human work is not used, "we create a social problem" and there is no economic turn in the community, which allows different movements. As for local materials, the German states: "We have fantastic local materials all over the world. They just need to see and be aware of them. Less concrete, more earth - they can't keep building like they do. Here in Germany, I've found that the cheapest solution is always the least sustainable, while in Bangladesh the cheapest solution is also the most sustainable."

Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 7 of 13 Anandaloy Center / Studio Anna Heringer. Image: © Kurt Hoerbst Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 8 of 13 Kindergarten Zimbabwe / Studio Anna Heringer. Image: © Margarethe Holzer Balkrishna Doshi

With a practice based on Indian cultures and his masters Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn, Balkrishna Doshi achieved a balance between modern and traditional forms, which brought him the highest honor in architecture in 2018, the Pritzker Prize. At the time, the jury highlighted how the use of patios, gardens and covered walkways created not only spaces to protect from the sun but also for the pleasure and comfort of users, generating an architecture that united prefabrication with local techniques and "developed a vocabulary in harmony with the history, culture, local traditions and the changes that its country of origin was going through".

“Architecture is a manifestation of life and the world that happens through their actions as if it were a backdrop”, the architect shares in The Promise, a short film about his work. A phrase that synthesizes his thinking and allows the creation of an architecture not only rooted in its context sensibilities, but that finds environments that spread the Indian tradition and shelter its transformation in contemporary times. Doshi created buildings that celebrate life based on social, cultural and economic sustainability. An architecture that remains meaningful to the community.

Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 9 of 13 Aranya Low Cost Housing. Image © VSF. Courtesy of the Pritzker Architecture Prize Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 2 of 13 Amdavad Ni Gufa / Balkrishna Doshi. Image: © Iwan Baan Fancis Keré

When he received the Pritzker Prize in 2022, Francis Kéré was already known for his work that seeks to solve basic needs, limited budgets, vernacular techniques, the local culture and the community that maintains and builds it. A seam that preserves architecture's beauty. Using ancestral spatial knowledge, primarily from Burkina Faso, Keré develops technical solutions from his perspective. This creates an architecture that blends with the social and geographic context by respecting the context, materials, and labor.

When describing the reasons why Keré won the Pritzker, Nicolás Valencia says: "In Kéré's works, nothing is superfluous, but that doesn't mean he excludes good drawing that moves us from the equation. He strikes a delicate balance between reworking local techniques and creating original designs, avoiding romanticizing precariousness. Indeed, Kéré does not intend to institutionalize or export the aesthetics or construction techniques of his hometown, but understands that these principles only work where they belong and that in his construction process he can transfer knowledge to workers and society, without falling into the illusion that architects should disappear to make way for a fully qualified community."

Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 12 of 13 Gando Primary School / Kéré Architecture. Foto: © Siméon Duchoud Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 11 of 13 Gando Primary School Library / Kéré Architecture. Imagem cortesia de Kéré Architecture Marina Tabassum

Award-winning architect and teacher Marina Tabassum's work is intrinsically connected to her home country, Bangladesh. With a conflicting historical and political context, today the country is marked by high income inequality and suffers from natural disasters. Several factors, along with local spatial traditions, shape Tabassum's architectural ethics: focusing on social responsibility and integrating cultural context into her projects to make positive impacts.

Elements such as place and memory, light and spirituality, permeate the work of the architect who is, above all, in tune with the context - whether natural or urban - through the use of local materials. In this way, she uses vernacular and ancestral techniques to develop projects that Strengthen communities' lives and respond to political and environmental challenges in her country.

Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 13 of 13 Bait Ur Rouf Mosque / Marina Tabassum. Foto: © Aga Khan Trust for Culture / Rajesh Vora Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 5 of 13 Khudi Bari / Marina Tabassum Architects. Image: © Asif Salman Wang Shu

"Architecture is not just an object that you place in context," explains Wang Shu. "Your architecture experience starts far from the building. Architecture is not just the house itself; it also includes the large area around it. All of that is architecture."

The Chinese architect, head of the Amateur Architecture Studio, received the Pritzker Prize in 2012 for his performance aligned with his country's cultural and historical context. According to that year's jury chairman Lord Palumbo: “The question of the proper relationship of the present to the past is particularly timely. The latest urbanization process in China invites debate about when architecture should be anchored in tradition or look to the future. As with any magnificent architecture, Wang Shu's work allows one to transcend this debate, producing an architecture that is timeless, deeply rooted in its context and yet universal.”

Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 4 of 13 Ningbo Historical Museum / Wang Shu, Amateur Architecture Studio. Image: © Iwan Baan Contemporary Architecture: The Importance of Local Culture in Practice - Image 6 of 13 Hangzhou New Art Academy / Wang Shu, Amateur Architecture Studio. Image: © Iwan Baan

This article is part of the ArchDaily Topics: Design Process, proudly presented by Codesign, the first purpose-built iPad app for the concept design stage of the architectural process.

Codesign turns sketches into 3D building models in moments, with the ability to iterate, explore and understand downstream effects immediately. Architects can explore all the possibilities of a project, and spend more time doing what they love the most, designing. (Codesign was previously known as Spaces)

Every month they explore a subject in-depth through articles, interviews, news, and architecture projects. They invite you to learn more about their ArchDaily Topics. And, as always, at ArchDaily they welcome the contributions of their readers; if you want to submit an article or project, contact us.

How do I find an architect?

Whatever the size of your construction project, when looking for a good architect practice there are three useful ways to explore your options:

1. RIBA Find an Architect Service

The RIBA’s Find an Architect online tool is a free service and arguably the quickest and easiest way to find the right architect for your project, whatever its scope or scale. Here, you can outline your project, your budget and what you are looking for, and be matched to RIBA’s membership of over 4100 accredited firms giving you a shortlist of practices who have the right experience for your project. In turn, those practices can also let you know if they're interested in working on your project. You can then set up meetings with some or all of those shortlisted practices to make your final decision.

In this video Rob Earl, Client Services Manager at RIBA explains what the Find an Architect service can do for you.

2. RIBA Client Referrals Service

Alternatively, you can talk to the RIBA Client Services team who, on request, can draw up a tailored shortlist of Chartered Practices on your behalf. Tell us more about your project and we’ll get you matched with relevant RIBA accredited Chartered Practices.

Not sure if an architect is right for your project? Check their Why work with an architect? page. 


  • Free service
  • Select from over 4100 accredited firms
  • Quick and easy way to link up with suitable practices with relevant experience
  • Interested practices can contact you if the project is suitable for them
  • You will have a ready-made shortlist of relevant practices to research further / choose from
  • 3. Personal Recommendation

    Word-of-mouth recommendations from friends and colleagues  can be a useful approach to finding an architect for your own project. However, it is always worth checking that the person recommended is a registered architect – and asking to see previous project examples - before you meet with them. 

    The title ‘architect’ is protected by law and as such, all architects must be registered with the Architects Registration Board. This guarantees a certain basic standard of work and means they will have professional indemnity insurance should it be needed.

    To find out if an architect is registered and check the credentials of any recommendation you might receive, you can search the ARB register online. 


  • First-hand knowledge of the architect’s capabilities and client service
  • Confidence that they have local knowledge
  • Evidence of their approach and expertise
  • Things to consider
  • You will be appointing the architect practice, not the individual, so it’s important to know who will be your day to day contact, and whether they are a registered architect. Take the time to check with the Architects Registration Board. 
  • It's important that you choose an architect you enjoy working with. Your relationship with your architect will determine the success of your project.
  • Spend a bit of time getting to know an architect before you appoint them. In that way you can get a feel for the way they work and their design style and also ensure that your collective vision for the project is aligned.
  • Aim to meet a few potential architects at your home to discuss your project and ask to see their portfolios or even visit other projects they have completed before making a decision.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug