Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ASVAB-Mechanical-Comp
Exam Name : ASVAB Section 3 : Mechanical Comprehension
Vendor Name : Military
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A.I. Questions, Answered

I want to make a confession: I don’t understand a lot of the hype around artificial intelligence.

Like a lot of other people, I tried ChatGPT after it was released, and I was impressed. But I’ve been mostly disappointed since then. When I’ve asked it to analyze a data set, its answers have included errors. When I ask about historical events, the information isn’t much better than what’s on Wikipedia. When I ask about accurate events, the bot tells me that it doesn’t have access to data after Jan. 2022.

I don’t doubt that A.I. will eventually be a big deal. But much of the discussion today feels vague and impenetrable for nonexperts. To get a more tangible understanding, I asked my colleagues Cade Metz and Karen Weise, who cover A.I., to answer some questions. We’ve turned their answers into today’s newsletter.

David: Am I wrong to be unimpressed so far?

Cade and Karen: A lot of people have told us they share your experience. Their editor recently asked us to list impressive things people were doing with ChatGPT, and they really had to think about it.

One example does seem to be writing. They are writers by profession, but writing does not come easily for many people. Chatbots can help get out a first draft. Cade knows a dentist who uses it to help write emails to his staff. Karen overheard some teachers in a coffee shop say they were using it to draft college recommendation letters. A friend used it to produce a meal plan for a weeklong vacation, asking it to propose menus and a grocery list that was a helpful starting point.

But the chatbots have an inherent problem with producing wrong information, what the industry calls “hallucinations.” A lawyer representing Michael Cohen, the onetime fixer for Donald Trump, recently submitted a brief to a federal court that mistakenly included fictitious court cases. As it turns out, a Google chatbot had invented the cases.

David: What’s an example of something meaningful that people may be able to do with A.I. soon?

Cade and Karen: Companies like OpenAI are transforming chatbots into what they call “A.I. agents.” Basically, this is a fancy term for technology that will go out onto the internet and take actions on your behalf, like searching for plane flights to New York or turning a spreadsheet into a chart with just a few words of commands.

So far the chatbots have primarily focused on words, but the existing technology will work from images, videos and sound. Imagine uploading images of a math question that included diagrams and charts, and then asking the system to answer it. Or generating a video based on a short description.

David: Let’s talk about the dark side. The apocalyptic fears that A.I. will begin killing people feel sci-fi-ish, which causes me to dismiss them. What are real reasons for concern?

Cade and Karen: A.I. systems can be mysterious, even to the people who create them. They are designed around probabilities, so they are unpredictable. The worriers fret that because the systems learn from more data than any human could consume, they could wreak havoc as they are woven into stock markets, military systems and other vital systems.

But all the talk of these hypothetical risks can reduce the focus on more realistic problems. Already they are seeing A.I. produce better misinformation for China and other nations and write more seductive and successful phishing emails to scam people. A.I. has the potential to make people even more distrustful and polarized.

David: The lack of regulation over smartphones and social media has aggravated some big societal problems in the past 15 years. If some government regulators called you into their office and asked how to avoid being so far behind with A.I., what lessons would your reporting suggest?

Cade and Karen: Regulators need to educate themselves from a broad range of experts, not just big tech. This technology is extremely complicated, and the people building it often exaggerate both the positives and the negatives. Regulators need to understand, for instance, that the threat to humanity is overblown, but other threats are not.

Right now there is very little transparency around almost every aspect of A.I. systems, which makes it hard to keep in check. A prime example: These systems learn their skills from massive amounts of data, and the major companies have not disclosed the particulars. The companies might be using personal data without consent. Or the data might contain hate speech.

Related: Research from Stanford University suggests that A.I. tools have not increased cheating in high schools so far, The Times’s Natasha Singer explains.

Do you use A.I. in your everyday life? If so, tell us how — with an email to themorning@nytimes that has “AI use” in the subject line.

THE LATEST NEWSIran Explosions

Prodigy: Meet the 13-year-old from Oklahoma thought to be the first person to “beat” Tetris.

Social Qs: “My friend offered to dogsit, then backed out when her mother died. Now what?”

Tales of the underworld: ValTown, an account on X, spotlights gangs and drug kingpins of the 1980s and 1990s — and how crime and celebrity often intersect.

From London to Paris: A European rail renaissance is well underway.

Lives Lived: Maurice Hines was a high-wattage song-and-dance man who rose to stardom as a child tap-dancing with his brother, then performed on and off Broadway. Hines died at 80.

SPORTS

Golf: Rory McIlroy said the Saudi-financed LIV Tour exposed flaws in how the PGA Tour deals with sponsorships and player commitments.

Blowout: The Grambling State women’s basketball team beat the College of Biblical Studies by 141 points, a record margin.

Teenager: Britain’s existing star is a 16-year-old darts player. There are few people in sports with parallel successes, Victor Mather writes.

ARTS AND IDEAS

Star in the making: For those who don’t follow football, Travis Kelce’s leap into the culture last year — hosting “Saturday Night Live,” dating the world’s biggest pop singer — seemed to come from nowhere. But his success wasn’t a fluke: His business managers, the Eanes brothers, had been slowly constructing it for years. “We positioned Travis to be world famous,” André Eanes said.

More on cultureTHE MORNING RECOMMENDS …
 


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug